'HITCHCOCK, EDWARD, D.D., LLD., an eminent American geologist, was born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, United States, in May 1793. In 1816 be was made head of the Academy at Doeraeld; but resigned that office in 1819, and two years later accepted the invitation to become the pastor of a congregational church at Conway in the same taste. But his studies were directed to science still more than to theology, and Mr. Hitchcock sharing fully in the ardour which the study of geology was then everywhere exciting began to make himself known by his lithological investigations. In 1824 ha published a work of some importance, The Geology of the Connecticut Valley,' which was received with much applause, and eventually led to his being offered in 1824.5 the professorship of Chemistry and Natural History in Amherst College. Ho continued in the zealous discharge of the duties of this office, and prosecuting his favourite studies, with the occasional publication of a ecientifie paper in the ' Memoirs of the American Academy,' or some other scientific journal, or in a mono graph, such as his 'Catalogue of Plants within Twenty Miles of Amherst (I829),' until 1830, when he was appointed State Geologist, and called upon by the State of Massachusetts to make a survey of the geology and mineralogical resources, &c., of that state. The result of his explorations appeared in 1831 under the title of First Report on tho Economic Geology of Massachusetts;' this was followed in 1833 by a more complete ' Report on the Geology, Botany, Zoology, &c., of Mas sachusetts," with numerous plates and diagrams. This report wee a work of great value, but the progress of the acieuce having rendered it desirable that a re-examination of the geological character of the state should be made, Dr. Hitchcock was directed to undertake it. Havine done so, he drew up in 1838 a 'Report on a Re-examination of the Geology of Massachusetts;' but his chief work on the subject embodying the results of his protracted course of investigations and matured study, nod 009 likely long to remain tho standard work of reference on this important portion of the United States, appeared in 1841 under the title ' Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts,' 2 vols., royal 4to, with a map and numerous illustrations.
In 1844 Dr. Hitchcock was chosen president of Amherst College, which important office he still holds, together with that of professor of geology and natural theology. He had previous to this sought to extend the knowledge of general as well as of local geology by his Elementary Geology,' of which the first edition appeared in 1840, and which, having been reprinted in England with an ' Introductory Notice' by Dr. J. Pye Smith, became extremely popular in both coun tries, partly no doubt from the religious spirit, pervading it, but which it well deserved on account of its scientific merits: an 8th edition has been recently issued. Another work of a somewhat similar kind subsequently published by Dr. Hitchcock bears the title Outline of the Geology of the Globe, and of the United States in particular.' In 1848 Dr. Hitchcock published an important monograph on the 'Fossil Footmarks in the United States,' chiefly an account of those in tho Connecticut Valley, of which as early as 1842 Sir Charles Lyell says, that Dr. Hitchcock "bad observed more than 2000 impressions in the district alluded to." Having been appointed by the state of Massachusetts in 1850 State Agricultural Commissioner, with directions to visit and examine the chief schools of agriculture in Europe, he on his return to America presented a valuable Report on the Agricul tural Schools of Europe,' which will be found well worth consulting by any one interested in the subject.
Besides his numerous papers in the American scientific journals and the works above named, Dr. Hitchcock has written several books and pamphlets of a more or less directly theological character. Of these the chief are—' Religious Lectures on l'eculiar Phenomena in the Four Lessons, delivered to the Students in Amherst College in 1845-49 ;' and ' The Religion of Geology and its connected Scieuees,' 8vo, 1851. Dr. Hitchcock is held in high esteem by the scientific men of Europe as well as of America, and few men have done more to advance the study of geology in tho United States, or to remove tho prejudices which beset its culture,