TRIESTE., or TRIEST, once a Roman colony (called by Pliny and Pornponius 3lela Teryette), is now a flourishing commercial city and sea-port, the capital of the Austrian Littoral. It is situated in 45'48° N. lat., 13• 38' E. long., at the north-western extremity of the Gulf of Venice. It consists of two parts : the old town, standing on a hill with a castle on the summit, and the new town, called Theresienstadt, which is built on level ground extending to tho seaside. Between the two parts is a spacious thoroughfare called the Coteo, which opens upon several handsome squares, one of which is adorned with a column surmounted by a statue of the emperor Charles VL The old town has narrow, crooked, dirty streets, especially in the old Jews' quarter ; the new town however forms a regular square with broad streets crossing each other at right angles, and some canals, one of which, called the Great Canal, presents a very animated appearance. There are 31 squares, or market-places, of which the Thcresicnplatz and Joaepll's Matz in the new town are the handsomest. There are 9 churches, among which are 1 Lutheran, I Calvinist, 1 Greek, 1 Oriental Greek, and 1 Servian ; besides other great public buildings, such as St. Peter'e church, the ancient cathedral, the synagogue, and the noble exchange, the city contains many very large and handsome private houses. In the year 1719 the emperor Charles VI. declared Trieste a free port, which it still continues to be. At that time there were scarcely 8000 inhabitants. The privileges of the place were extended by the empress Maria Theresa, so that all goods, with very few exceptions, can be imported duty free. The consequence has been that the population has increased very rapidly, and the town, including its immediate territory, has about 95,000 inhabitants. Trieste is now the most important and wealthy commercial city and the chief sea-port in the Austrian dominions. Foreign consuls reside in it. The com merce of Trieste was much increased by the institution of the Austrian Lloyd's, which is supported by the government, and has 'above 30 steamers, which ply to all parts of the Adriatic, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea. Of large merchantmen there arrive at Trieste
about 1500 of all nations, and the number of arrivals of coasting vessels is not less than 8000. Steamers ply between Trieste and Venice, and others to Greece, Constantinople, Trebizond, and Egypt. The harbour, which is small but secure, is defended by a strong battery on the new mole; it is bordered by a wide stone quay, close to which vessels of 300 tons can ride at anchor. By the Maria Theresa Canal, which partially intersects the city, vessels can load and unload at the doors of the warehouses. There are two lazarettos near the harbour, where ships from suspected places perform quarantine. Among the manufactures aro soap, leather, rosoglio, wax, liqueurs, wax-lights, refined sugar, spirits, pottery, &c.
Trieste is a sea-port for a very large tract of country, comprising the Austrian territories from the Tyrol to Transylvauia. Among the exports are—metals, linens, tobacco, woollens, printed calicoes, wax, hemp, wool, skins, furs, timber, corn, rice, wine, oil, and shumac. Tho imports are—cotton, hides, raisins, silks, rice and oil, wheat from Odessa, and all kinds of tropical and colonial produce from the West Indies and Brazil. Goods from the Black Sea coasts, from Turkey and Egypt, are warehoused in Trieste. Ship-building is carried on to a great extent, and the ship-buildera of Trieste are much esteemed for their skill. A railway to Vienna through Laybach is all but completed.
Trieste gives title to a Catholic bishop. It has an imperial academy, a scientific and nautical school with 16 professors, a town library con taining 21,000 volumes, a gymnasium, many banking establishments, and iueurance offices. The hills surrounding the city are adorned with beautiful country seats and gardens. These hills were formerly naked and desolate, but in the latter half of the 18th century mould was brought at a great expense by sea from Istria, and this barren tract was gradually transformed into a paradise. After the Treaty of Vienna in 11309, Trieste with its territory was annexed by Napoleon I. to Illyria. In 1814 it returned to the dominion of Austria.