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Foreign Trade and Shipping

Cooperation For Foreign Trade
Cooperation For Foreign Trade 1. Foreign Competition Will Be Keener Than Ever.— Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, Former President Of The Na Tional City Bank Of New York, Said During The War : So Long As The War Goes On, The World Will Be So Tipped Askew, In All Probability, That ...

Direct Exporting 1
Direct Exporting 1. Direct Relations Desirable But Costly.—the Ques Tion As To Whether Direct Or Indirect Relations With The Foreign Market Are Likely To Be The Most Profitable Is One That Cannot Be Answered Without Reference To Other Considerations. It Depends Upon The Character Of The Market At Home, The ...

Governmental Trade Promotion 1
Governmental Trade Promotion 1. Various Methods Of Promoting Foreign Trade.— The Government May Aid Foreign Trade In Three Differ Ent Ways. It May Lighten The Burdens Imposed On The Trader By Tariff Laws, Either Domestic Or Foreign. It May Furnish Trade Information And Establish Schools Or Courses In Foreign Trade ...

Importing 1
Importing 1. Foreign Trade Has A, Twofold Aspect.—in Many Discussions Of Foreign Trade, Attention Is Devoted Al Most Exclusively To Exports, And Imports Are Almost Entirely Ignored. Nevertheless, The Importation Of Goods Is Quite As Important To The National Life As Exportation. The Importer Meets Many Problems Pe Culiar To ...

Indirect Exporting 1
Indirect Exporting 1. Indirect Exporting.—the Development Of For Eign Markets Is So Expensive And Calls For So Much Preliminary Study And Investigation That Many A Man Ufacturer, With Goods Appropriate For Export And A Growing Need For Anexport Outlet, Hesitates To Under Take The Venture. This Does Not, Of Course, ...

Making An Export Shipment
Making An Export Shipment 1. Follow Instructions.—american Exporters Seem To Have An Innate Constitutional Objection To Following Instructions. In Foreign Trade That Is Poor Business. When A Certain Method Of Packing Is Indicated, Or A Certain Route Over Which The Shipment Is To Be For Warded, The Instruction Should Be ...

Ocean Freight Rates 1
Ocean Freight Rates 1. Why Ocean Freight Rates Are Cheap.—ocean Transportation Is Cheap Compared With Transportation By Land. Before The War A Shipment Of Shoes From Chicago For London Paid $1.20 Freight From Chicago To New York, A Distance Of 912 Miles, And $1.30 From New York To London, A ...

Ports And Terminals 1
Ports And Terminals 1. Significance Of Ports.-a Port Is A Place Where Ocean And Inland Transportation Meet. It Presup Poses Safe Anchorage Or Harbor For The Ocean Carrier And Facilities For The Loading And Unloading Of Freight. A Port's Economic Importance Depends Upon A Num Ber Of Factors Among Which ...

Principles Of Ocean Transportation
Principles Of Ocean Transportation 1. American Foreign Trade Is Ocean Borne.—trade With Canada And Mexico, Our Immediate Neighbors, Is Seldom Included When Foreign Trade Problems Are Discussed ; In Trade, Foreign Is Virtually Synonymous With Overseas. This Is Natural. The Problems Of Foreign Trade Are To A Large Degree Problems ...

Private Trade Promotion 1
Private Trade Promotion 1. American And English Chambers Of Commerce. —the Promotion Of Foreign Commerce Has Received The Attention Of Many American Chambers Of Com Merce And Commercial Bodies. The Chicago Associa Tion Of Commerce, For Example, Aids Its Members By Establishing Agencies Abroad, And Also By Bringing Them In ...

Rate Agreements 1
Rate Agreements 1. Advantages Of Stable Rates To Shipper.—well Managed And Reliable Steamship Conections Are Of The Greatest Importance To Exporters. The Service Must Be Regular And Fast So That Goods Contracted For May Be Delivered On The Dates Agreed Upon And With The Least Elapsed Time. Superior Service, Moreover, ...

Relation Of Foreign Trade
Relation Of Foreign Trade To Domestic Business 1. Decision To Enter Foreign Trade Must Be Based On Careful American Business Man Has Sometimes Been Accused Of Shortsightedness And Lack Of Enterprise For Having Allowed English And German Manufacturers To Attain A Dominant Position In The Markets Of The World Without ...

The Conditions Of Sale
The Conditions Of Sale 1. Trade Most Difficult Problems In Foreign Trade Are Those Connected With The Local Cus Toms And Usages Of The Different Markets. A Care Ful Study Of These Is The Very Condition Of Success, Tho The American Exporter Is Reputed To Be Much Inclined To Ignore ...

The Export Department 1
The Export Department 1. The Export Manager.—many A Firm Is Delaying The Establishing Of An Export Department Because It Finds It Difficult To Secure A Manager. Thus Far The Majority Of These Positions Have Been Filled By Men Of Foreign Birth Whose Education And Experience More Or Less Fit Them ...

The Freight Service 1
The Freight Service 1. Ocean Freight Services.—ocean Carriers May Be Classified As Liners, Tramps, And Private Carriers. The Liner Makes Regular Voyages Over Definite Routes, Usually On Schedule Time. The Tramp Is An Irregular Traveller, Going Wherever It Pays To Go. The Private Carrier Is Owned And Operated By An ...

The Market 1
The Market 1. Careful Study Of The Market Necessary.—before Undertaking The Development Of The Foreign Market It Is Advisable To Make A Careful Study Of Its Possi Bilities And Requirements. The First Step Is To Determine Which Of The Many Markets Shall Be Chosen. The Character Of The Goods To ...

The Merchant Marine 1
The Merchant Marine 1. How Our Exports And Imports Are Carried.—the Percentage Of Exports And Imports Of The United States Carried In Vessels Of American Registry Has Steadily Declined Since 1825, Indicating That Ameri Can Business Has Been To An Increasing Extent Depen Dent Upon Foreign Ships. The Following Table ...

The National Aspect Of
The National Aspect Of Foreign Trade 1. Foreign Trade A Matter Of National Interest.— We Have Thus Far Considered The Importance Of For Eign Trade From The Point Of View Of The Individual Business Man. In This Chapter We Shall Attempt To Answer The Question Why The Nation As A ...