In the United States many such bodies exist, among them the Spanish Chamber of Commerce of . New York, which is an official representative of the Spanish Government; the Italian Chamber of Commerce of New York, Chicago and San Francisco; the Nor wegian-American Chamber of Commerce, formerly the American-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce of New York; the Compagnie de Developement Com mercial Franco-Beige des Etats Unis, of Chicago; the Chamber of German-American Commerce of New York at present discontinued ; the Holland America Chamber of Commerce for the Pacific of San Francisco; and the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce of New York.
Among the American chambers of commerce abroad, the following are prominent: The Chamber of Commerce for the Levant, in Constantinople, Athens and Salonica ; the American-Export Chamber of Commerce of Amsterdam; the American-Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Brussels; the American Chamber of Commerce in Paris; the American Com mercial Club in Buenos Aires, besides similar organ izations in Shanghai, Brazil, Barcelona, Milan and Berlin, and formerly in Petrograd and Moscow.
5. Trade organizations.—Besides the chambers of commerce promoting the interests of specific localities in foreign trade, there are trade or industrial associa tions looking after the welfare of lines of business rep resented abroad. The most important of these in this country are the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers As sociation, the New England Shoe and Leather Asso ciation, the National Lumber Exporters Association, the Oregon-Washington-California Coast Salmon Packers Association, and the National Implement and Vehicle Association.
Trade organizations of a general character are the American Manufacturers' Export Association. This body organized the National Foreign Trade Conven tion, held in 1914, from which resulted the National Foreign Trade Council. This organization main tains an information service for its members in New York and has correspondents in foreign countries. It supplies credit information, translates letters and catalogues, and looks after collections abroad.
The Council, organized as a body which should "en deavor to coordinate the foreign trade activities of the nation" has an authorized maximum membership of fifty. Its function is investigatory and advisory. Reports on important questions are made from time to time and yearly meetings are held, where topics of national importance are discussed.
The National Association of Manufacturers is very active along foreign trade lines. It publishes the
Semi-Monthly Bulletin, a monthly, American In dvstries, and two monthly international organs, Ex port American Industries, reaching thousands of business men in Europe, Australia, Africa. and Asia, and A nterica e Industrias Americanas, intended for Spanish speaking countries.
The "American Trade Index" is a little volume containing the names of all the members of the Asso ciation with their addresses and a short statement of the products handled by them. Frequent "Market Reports" published in pamphlet form give informa tion about conditions abroad ; the Confidential Bul letin, published semi-monthly, gives a list of American goods for which inquiries were received with the name and address of the inquirer. A list of foreign busi ness houses interested in any particular line of goods is furnished to members. The office makes transla tions, secures credit information film over eighteen hundred confidential correspondents, undertakes to collect overdue accounts, gives advice regarding pat ents and trade-marks, tariffs, freight rates and general information useful to the commercial traveler about to enter a new field. In 1915, the Association organized the International Trade Conference in New York.
Many state-wide organizations perform approxi mately the same service within their limited area. The Tennessee Manufacturers Association and the Il linois Manufacturers Association belong to this group.
6. Trade organizations abroad.—The most efficient foreign trade promotion work is performed in many countries by the trade organizations. In Germany these organizations were closely connected with the cartel policy and usually combined a price fixing pol icy with the function of securing information. This aspect of trade cooperation will be discussed at length in the chapter dealing with combinations for export trade.
Organizations too numerous to mention are in ex istence in European countries. The Canadian Mann facturers Association and the Export Association of Canada are of this same type. A new development is seen in the case of the Swedish GeneralExport Union which recently in combination with the Swedish Cham ber of Manufacturers established a Central Commit tee for Swedish Export Industry. This new organ ization announces as its purpose to advise the eminent in matters of tariffs, treaties and the obtain ing of favorable terms from foreign governments.