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How to Practice Engine Economy

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HOW TO PRACTICE ENGINE ECONOMY If the hoary and bewhiskered adage which tells us that an "ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" was stenciled on the side of every internal combustion engine sold and those who buy them would heed the world old saying, there would be at least 50 per cent less of them go to the scrap heap every year.

A. man who has had little or no experience with machines in general and engines in particular is apt to think because a power unit of this kind is made of iron and steel all he needs to do is to feed it with fuel, lubricate it with oil and give it water once in a while and that in turn it will deliver power without further attention.

And so an engine will run for a while, sometimes a long while, under these conditions, but to get it to develop its full rated power and, what is of even more importance, keep it in service for the longest time, there are some other things that must be looked after and diligently, too, for using the right kind of fuels and lubricating oils and keeping an ever-watchful eye on the engine are the big factors that count for economy.

About Fuel differ ence in the prices of natural, producer and city gas is not of such great importance when you are running a small engine. Of course, if you are living in a re gion where there is natural gas, by all means use it, but if not, use city gas, unless you are running an engine of 40 horsepower or over, and then it will pay you to install a suction gas producer.' Gasoline, Fuel Valves and Carburetors.—In mo bile engines such as those used for running motor cycles, motor boats, motor cars and airplanes, it spells economy to use a good uniform grade of gaso line, and the only way to get it is to buy it of the Gulf, Texas, Standard Oil or other good company.

In stationary engines, especially those of large size, the quality of the gasoline can be of a lower grade than that used in mobile engines. Before using gasoline it is a good scheme to filter it through a piece of chamois skin or, where it is used in large quantities, strain it through a piece of wire gauze having a fine mesh. Foreign particles of matter

that get in the gasoline will clog up the fuel valve or carburetor; and this will cost you both time and money.

Where a fuel valve is used on a gasoline engine it is adjusted to a nicety before the engine leaves the factory, and it will not need readjusting unless some thing gets in the gasoline and chokes up the needle. But with a carburetor it is different, and it is up to you usually to see that it is properly adjusted to mix the gasoline and air in the right proportions.

If the fuel valve or carburetor gets out of adjust ment your engine will lose power and it then becomes very wasteful of fueL To get either of these devices adjusted exactly right, it takes a man who thoroughly understands the particular make your engine is fitted with. You can learn to make these adjustments yourself if you have the time and the patience of Job, but don't let any alleged engine mechanic fool with it unless you know that he knows just what he is about.

Kerosene and Crude Oils.—In oil engines having electric ignition kerosene gives better results than crude oils, because the cylinder is not kept hot enough to vaporize lower grade oils without leaving a lot of carbon behind.

In buying kerosene for your engine don't get the highly refined illuminating oil that has a fire test of 140 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit, but take the lower grade kerosene, whose fire test is 100 to 110 degrees Fahrenheit. There are several reasons why the latter is better than the former, and among these are be cause (1) it ignites at a lower temperature, (2) it evaporates easier, and (3) it is very much cheaper.

Heavier fuel oils such as solar, gas and even crude oils can be used successfully in engines which are fitted with hot ball or bonnet igniters and hence these engines are very economical to run. The very cheapest crude oils as they come from the wells can be used in Diesel engines because the temperature of the cylinder is even higher, hence this type of engine is still more economical to operate.

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