The Kind

engine, stroke, cycle, engines, fuel, cylinder and economy

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A little horizontal engine is easier to cool than a vertical engine for the reason that a water hopper can be mounted directly on top of it, and where an engine is to be belted to a dynamo or other machine a horizontal engine is perhaps a trifle more rigid than a vertical engine.

Nearly all large engines except those built for the marine service are made horizontal because they are easier to build, to set up, to get at, are more rigid, and, hence, there is less vibration.

Two Stroke Cycle versus Your Stroke Cycle En gines.—All motorcycle, motor car and airplane en gines are made on the four stroke cycle principle, while marine and stationary engines are made on both the two and four stroke cycle principles.

Two stroke cycle engines in one and two cylinder types run a little smoother than those of the four stroke cycle types having the same number of cylin ders, because in the former there is a power stroke to every revolution of the crankshaft while in the latter there is a mower stroke to every two revolu tions.

In virtue of the fact that the fuel mixture in a two stroke cycle cylinder, especially in engines of the smaller sizes, is always contaminated by the burnt gases it is harder to start a two stroke cycle engine than it is a four stroke cycle engine of like size. If the engine is a large one and has a self-starter, this difficulty need not concern you.

Because there is an explosion to every revolution of the flywheel two stroke cycle engines are smaller and weigh less since the power is delivered every other stroke instead of every fourth stroke and con sequently the flywheel can be made some lighter. On the other hand a two stroke cycle engine heats up more than one having a four stroke cycle, and it takes therefore more water to cool it. But this is of no importance if it is to be used for driving a mo tor boat.

Single Cylinder versus Multicylinder Engines._ It is a well known fact in engine calculation that the fuel economy rapidly increases with the size of the cylinder. Since this is true it stands to reason that a single cylinder engine is always the most economi cal not only in its first cost but in its operation as well.

A single cylinder engine is more simple to man age and you should always use it for stationary work if you can possibly do so. But when the size of the

cylinder reaches a certain critical point it cannot be easily increased and so where more than 75 or 100 horsepower is needed it is the better practice to install an engine having two or more cylinders.

The Size of an Engine in Relation to Its Fuel fuel economy always raises with the load but in an engine of good design it will remain pretty nearly the same from three-quarters load on up to full load.

For this reason it is not good practice to buy a 2 or 3 horsepower engine if a 1 horsepower engine will give you all the power you need. Not only is the fuel economy greater when the engine is running on full load but it uses less lubricating oil.

While all reputable engines are built to carry overloads still it is bad policy to install too small an engine, for it will have to bear the brunt of extra wear and tear due to excessive stress and strains and these will be sure to cost you dearly before the end.

The Type of an Engine in lelotion to the Fuel Available. From what has gone before you will get a pretty clear idea of whether you want a vertical or • a horizontal engine, one that works on a two or a four stroke cycle, and the size you need, and now comes the question of the kind of fuel that you must burn in your engine.

In districts where natural gas can be had or where illuminating gas can be bought at a low cost these are the ideal fuels, but for engines of from 40 to 300 horsepower producer gas will be found the most economical.

Gasoline is the kind of liquid fuel to use where high speeds and certainty of operation, as in mobile engines, are required and economy is not of the great est importance. In small engines, such as are used on the farm where a cheaper fuel is preferable, an oil engine using a low grade of kerosene is the kind to get.

Crude fuel oils are not to be recommended for very small engines but where you can get this fuel cheaply and where high economy must be practiced, f you can use an engine large enough to burn them successfully, by all means do so.

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