(3) Steeping in to, weak lukewarm solution of carbonate of soda and soapsuds.
(4) Washing with lukewarm soap suds.
(5) Exposing to the fumes of sul phurous acid.
The last three operations are re peated if necessary. Afterwards the yarn or cloth is rinsed in bluing water. Operations 1 and 2 may be performed on the farm to improve the appearance of wool for the mar ket. Operations 3, 4, and 5 may be performed in the house to bleach yarn or woolen fabrics.
Chlorine in any form, as chloride of lime or bleaching powders, must not be used for woolen articles.
To Bleach Woolen Goods with 'Sul phur.—An inverted barrel, cask, box, or anything that is large enough and tight enough to hold the fumes of sulphur may be employed. Place this out of doors on a still day, or in an outhouse, turned upside down and supported on three or four bricks, to admit a. slight draught. Suspend the articles inside by means of hooks, or by passing cord or wire through gim let holes and tying it about them. Afterwards fill the gimlet holes with, rags or wax.
Kindle coke or charcoal, or place other live coals in an iron pan, sprin kle flowers of sulphur or pulverized brimstone on the coals, and set direct ly beneath. If the receptacle used is not quite tight, cover closely with wet piece of heavy cloth or old car pet. Care must, of course, be taken not to inhale the fumes of sulphur or to permit the sulphur to blaze and scorch the goods. The articles should be first washed in soapsuds, and wrung out of weak suds without rins ing.
For Small Articles.—A paper flour sack, to which they may be attached by pins or basting threads, is light, tight, and convenient for bleaching small articles. Put the brimstone In a saucer and cover with a tin funnel, so that the fumes will be directed up into the bag. Repeat if necessary, hang the articles out of doors until the odor has passed away, and wash as usual. This method is suitable for flannels, woolen hose, yarn, and also for silk, straw, and straw goods.
To Bleach with Oxalic Acid.—Dis
solve 1 ounce of oxalic acid in 1 gal lon of boiling water; allow this to cool until it will bear the hands. Im merse the articles and let them steep for an hour or more, rinse thoroughly, and dry. Repeat if necessary.
To Bleach Flannel. — Dissolve 1 ounce of powdered ammonia and 1 ounce of salt in 2 quarts of water. Soak the articles in this for an hour or more.
Or dissolve 2 ounces of bisulphite of soda in 1 gallon of water acidulat ed slightly with hydrochloric acid.
To Bleach Silk.—Nearly one half, by weight (30 to 40 per cent), of the fibers of silk consists of various gums and coloring matter.
The operation of bleaching consists in (1) Boiling the silks in soapsuds, with the addition of bran, to remove these impurities; (2) exposing them to sulphurous-acid gas.
Or boil in soapsuds, rinse, and ex pose to the sun. Or bleach with the fumes of sulphur.
To Bleach Feathers.—Make a di lute solution of bicarbonate of potas sium, I part to 10 parts of water, slightly acidulated with nitric acid, 1 fluid ounce to the gallon. Immerse the feathers for 3 or 4 hours. Af terwards rinse in clear water, slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid, 1 fluid ounce to the gallon.
To Bleach Straw Goods. — Sub stances recommended for bleaching straw and straw goods, including straw hats, are sulphurous acid (i. e., fumes of burning sulphur), chlorine water (or chloride of lime), citric acid, and oxalic acid. Straw goods must be prepared for bleaching by scrubbing with lukewarm soap and water.
The safest and hest method of bleaching straw is perhaps by means of the fumes of burning sulphur. This method is employed by manufacturers and milliners to bleach hats and bon nets. All bands and trimmings must first be removed.
Or apply chlorine water with a sponge, cloth, or brush. Afterwards rinse in clear water containing hypo sulphite of soda.
Or make a paste of corn meal and a solution of oxalic acid in water. Spread this on the hat, allow it to dry, and remove by brushing.