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Whitewashing

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WHITEWASHING Before applying whitewash, go over the wall or ceiling with a brush or dust cloth to remove dust, and wash with clear water. Fill all cracks and broken places with new plaster. Cut away the edges of broken places to make a square edge. Fill small cracks and breaks with plaster of Paris. Do not apply whitewash until the surface is quite dry. Give two or more coats as needed.

To Prepare Whitewash.—The prin cipal ingredients in various kinds of whitewash are slaked lime, whiting, Paris white or sulphate of baryta, oxide and sulphate of zinc, alum, sugar, rice and wheat flour, and glue mixed with milk or water. These ingredients are used in various com binations. The addition of a little bluing will make a clearer white, and a small amount of salt assists by making the whitewash stick bet ter.

The following mixtures are recom mended: Dissolve 2 ounces of fresh slaked lime in a small amount of milk to the consistency of cream. Add suf ficient milk to make 0 quarts and stir in slowly 5 pounds of whiting. Mix the whole mass thoroughly by beating with a wooden spoon or an egg beater. For a clear white, add a little bluing. For a cream color, add a small amount of ocher, or tint with any other coloring matter as desired.

Or mix 4 pounds of Spanish whit ing with cold water to the consist ency of milk. Dissolve 2 ounces of pure white glue in hot water over a slow fire, and pour it into the whit ing in a thin stream while hot, stir ring thoroughly.

Or slake a sufficient amount of lime in water to make a pailful of whitewash, and while still hot stir in a pint of flour boiled with water to form a thin cooked starch. Stir well and dilute with hot water to the right consistency.

Or prepare a wash of slaked lime in a pail or tub and strain through cheese cloth. Mix 4 ounces of whit ing or pulverized burnt alum, 2 pounds of sugar, and 9 quarts of rice flour with hot water and bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Add this mixture to 1 pailful of sifted lime wash. Add also 1 pound of

best white glue dissolved in boiling water over a slow fire. This is a very brilliant and durable wash and will last for many years.

Or slake 8 quarts of lime, and add 1 pound of sulphate of zinc and I pound of common salt dissolved in water. This is a hard, firm wash that will not crack.

Or mix 6 pounds of Paris white with cold water to form a paste, and dilute with hot water to the consist ency of milk. Stir in 4 ounces of the best white glue, dissolved in boiling water over a slow fire. This is a cheap wash and gives a fine, bril liant surface.

To Color Whitewash.—For a fine clear white, add a little bluing.

For a reddish pink, add Spanish brown.

For a red stone color, mix com mon clay with Spanish brown.

For yellow, add yellow ocher (or chrome yellow, which 'goes farther and makes a better shade).

For gray or lead color, add lamp black.

For cream color, yellow ocher. For stone color, 2 parts each of umber and lampblack.

For fawn color, 4 parts of umber, 2 parts of Indian red, and 1 part of lampblack.

Do not use green with whitewash.

The quantity of coloring matter required depends upon the amount of whitewash and the warmth of the tint desired, and must be deter mined by experiment, but approxi mately two or three pounds to a pailful of wash will be advisable.

Whitewash for Outdoor Use.—To make a good whitewash for fences, outbuildings, barns, stucco, and oth er surfaces exposed to the weather, slake 12 quarts of lime in a tight cask or barrel. Cover with canvas to keep in the steam. Strain through a large piece of cheese cloth or a fine sieve and add 2 quarts of coarse salt and 2 gallons of water. Bring this to a boil and skim off any im purities. Stir in 2 pounds of potash, 8 quarts of fine sand, and coloring matter as desired. This wash may be applied to wood, brick, or stone, looks as good as paint, and is weath erproof, fireproof, and very durable. It is an excellent preservative for shingle roofs and walls.

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