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Healthy Womanhood
Healthy Womanhood. In Section Xxvi. Statistics Have Been Given Showing The Rate Of Bodily Growth In Weight And Height Of Both Sexes. From These Tables Also It Will Be Observed That In Girls, Between The Ages Of Eleven And Thirteen, Increase In Height And Weight Becomes More Rapid Than At ...

High Mortality Of Children
High Mortality Of Children. That There Is Need For Spreading Broadcast Fuller Knowledge Than The Public Evidently At Present Possesses Of The Proper Methods Of Dealing With Children, Both In Health And In Illness, Is Strikingly Evident From The Statistics Carefully Collected And Detailed By The Late Dr. Wm. Farr, ...

Hydrophobia
Hydrophobia. Hydrophobia (dog-madneas—rabies).—the Word Hydrophobia Is Derived From Two Greek Words, Huddr, Water, And Phoboa, Fear, The Dread Of Swallowing And The Spasms Produced By The Attempt Being Emarked Feature Of The Disease. It Is A Disease To Which Dogs, Cats, Wolves, And Foxes Are Liable. It Is Due To ...

Immunity
Immunity. Natural Immunity.—this Is The Term Used To Imply That A Person Has A Degree Of Insus Ceptibility To Any Disease. We All Know People Who Are Very Susceptible To Any Disease They Come In Contact With, And In Sonic Cases The Susceptibility Is A Characteristic Of A Family. Sometimes ...

Indigestion Or Dyspepsia
Indigestion Or Dyspepsia. Dyspepsia Is Really A Greek Word, And Means Bad Digestion Or Difficult Digestion. Indigestion Means Essentially The Same Thing. Now The Words Indigestion And Dyspepsia Refer To A Con . Dition Of Digestion, But That Condition, Bad Or Difficult Digestion, May Arise From A Great Multi Tude ...

Infectious Fevers Attended By
Infectious Fevers Attended By Rash (eruption). Fevers Accompanied By Eruptions (rashes) On The Skin Were Classed By The Old Authority, Cullen, As Exanthemata. This Term Is Derived From Two Greek Words, Ex, Out, And Antheo, To Liossom. The Phrase Exanthematous Fevers Includes All The Fevers, Attended By A Rash, Which ...

Infiisoria
Infiisoria. About The Middle Of The Seventeenth Century One Anton Leenwenhoeck Lived In The Town Of Delft, In Holland, As The Steward Of A Judge There. He Was Accustomed To Employ His Leisure In Making Little Lenses, Wherewith He Magnified And Examined The Structure Of Such Things As Butterflies' And ...

Inflammation Congestion
Congestion, Inflammation, And Suppuration—bright's Disease. Congestion Of The Kidney Implies Overful Ness Of The Blood-vessels Of The Organ. This, It Is Plain, May Be Either Because A Much Larger Quantity Of Blood Than Usual Is Streaming Into The Kidney By The Arteries, In Which Case The Congestion Is Said To ...

Inflammation And Degeneration Of
Inflammation And Degeneration Of Arteries: Aneurism. Inflammation Of The Inner Coat Of Arteries Is Characterized By Patches Of Thickening Due To Increased Cell Development. The Thickened Patches Encroach On The Channel Of The Vessel, And May Block It. The Disease Depends In Some Cases On Syphilis Or Other Bad Conditions ...

Inflammation Of Bone
Inflammation Of Bone. It Has Been Seen That Bone Has Blood-vessels Passing Through Its Substance In Great Numbers, And That It Is Coated Without And Within By Men, B Es --periosten In And End Ostenm —w H Ich Also Are Richly Supplied With Vessels. Bone Is, Therefore, Liable To The ...

Inflammation Of Joints
Inflammation Of Joints. The Most Delicate Part Of A Joint Is The Syn Ovial Membrane, Which Pours Out The Synovia Or Fluid Lubricating The Joint (p. 64). It Is Liable To Inflammatory Changes, In Which The Amount Of Blood Flowing Through The Vessels Of The Membrane Will Be Increased, The ...

Inflammation Of The Outer
Inflammation Of The Outer And Inner Lining Membrane: Valve Disease. Inflammation Of The Pericardium (peri Carditis).—the Position And Character Of The Outer Lining Membrane Of The Heart Have Been Briefly Noted On P. 298. It Has Been Pointed Out That It Is In A Double Layer, The Layer In Direct ...

Inflammation Of The Womb
Inflammation Of The Womb. This Is A Very Wide Term, Embracing A Variety Of Diseases Known To Medical Men Under Special Names, And Requiring Special Treatment. It Will Be Sufficient Here To Indicate The General Features Which The Various Forms Of The Disease Have Pretty Much In Common, And The ...

Inflammatory Affections Of The
Inflammatory Affections Of The Skin. Inflammatory Blush (etwthenia).—this Is In The Form Of Patches Of A Dusky-red Colour Caused By Increased Flow Of Blood Through The Vessels Of The Part. Sometimes The Patches Are Slightly Raised Above The Level Of The Skin. In The Simplest Form The Redness Appears Suddenly ...

Influenza
Influenza. Influenza (epidemic Catarrh—the Grip).— This Is An Affection Similar In Its General Char Acters To The Disease Described As Catarrh (p. 214) Or Common Cold-in-the-head. Indeed, To Cold-in-the-head, When Accompanied By Sharp Fever, Pains In The Bones, And Sickness, The Name Influenza Is Often Applied. The True Influenza Is, ...

Inhalation Of Irritating And
Inhalation Of Irritating And Poisonous Gases. In The Great War A Wide Experience Of The Effects Of The Inhalation Of Irritating And Poi Sonous Gases Arose From Their Use By The Central Powers For The Purposes Of Attack. This Use Began In April, 1915, By The Liberation Of Clouds Of ...

Injuries Of Joints
Injuries Of Joints. General Considerations.—a Dislocation Is The Forcible Separation Of The Surfaces Of Two Or More Bones Forming A Joint—the More Or Less Complete Displacement From One Another Of The Articulating Surfaces Of Bones. Its Causes Are Predisposing And Exciting. Predisposing Causes.—the Muscles And Tendons Are Very Important Agents ...

Injuries Of Muscle And
Injuries Of Muscle And Tendon. Rupture Or Tear Of Muscle Or Tendon Is Due ' To Violent Muscular Contractions. The Muscles Most Liable Are The Large Muscle Of The Calf Of The Leg (gastrocnemius), The Biceps Of The Arm, And The Straight (rectus) Muscle Of The Thigh That Joins The ...

Insanity
Insanity. It Is Not Proposed Here To Give Any Detailed Account Of The Nature, Causes, Symptoms, &c., Of Insanity Or Madness. The Subject Is One Of Great Difficulty, Engrossing All The Powers And Abilities Of Medical Men Of Eminence Who Have Devoted Themselves Specially To Its Study And Treatment. It ...

Intestinal Indigestion
Intestinal Indigestion. Disturbances Of Digestion May Exist In Pro Longed And Serious Forms When There Is No Disorder Of The Stomach, Due To Mischief Of Some Kind Or Other In The Small Or Large Bowel Err Other Abdominal Organs. This Is Easily Under Stood When One Recalls The Important Part ...

Intestinal Worms
Intestinal Worms. There Are Various Kinds Of Worms Known To • Find A Lodgment In The Human Body. The Chief Of Them Belong To Two Great Classes: (1) The Tape Worms Or Band-worms, And (2) The Round Or Thread Worms. The Scientific Terms For These Classes Are Cestodes Or Tmnize, ...

Irregularities Of Form In
Irregularities Of Form In The Newly-born. An Irregularly Shaped Head Is Not Infre Quent As The Result Of Severe Labour, Or The Use Of Instruments, &c. It Is Frequently Extremely Elongated, Perhaps Badly Flattened Or Pressed In At One Side. No Fear Is To Be Entertained On This Account. Within ...

Itching Diseases And Diseases
Itching Diseases And Diseases Due To Parasites. Itching (pruritus) Is A Condition Of Per Verted Sensibility Of The Skin. It Is Not To Be Regarded As A Disease In Itself, But Merely As A Symptom Of A Disease, And It May Accompany Various Disorders. Itching May Be Present In A ...

Its Structure And Functions
Its Structure And Functions (anatomy And Physiology). The Lungs Are The Organs Of Respiration, That Is, Of Breathing. Everyone Knows That The Con Tinuance Of The Acts Of Breathing Is Necessary To Life, And That If Respiration Be Suspended, As It Is In Choking, Strangling, Drowning, &c., For Even A ...

Kinds Of Insanity
Kinds Of Insanity. Six General Types Of Insanity Are Described, Namely, Melancholia, Mania, Monomania, De Mentia, Idiocy, And General Paralysis Of The Insane. It Is Not Meant That These Are Differ Ent Forms Of Insanity Absolutely Marked Off From One Another, For All The Forms Merge Into One Another. According ...

Localization Of Function In
Localization Of Function In The Brain. (plate Xi.) From The Facts Which Have Been Explained It Will Be Understood What Is Meant By The Phrase Localization Of Function In Brain And Spinal Cord. The Brain And Spinal Cord Do Not Act As A Whole In The Multitudinous Variety Of Nerve ...

Malarial Fevers
Malarial Fevers. (see Plate Xxx.) Ague (intermittent Fever—mara,, Fever Malaria).—ague Or Intermittent Fever Is Not' A Disease That May Be Communicated From One Person To Another. It Is Nevertheless A Fever' Which Is Due To The Introduction Of Some Poi Sonous Agent Into The Blood. That The Poison Ous Agent ...

Measles And German Measles
Measles And German Measles. (plate Xxviii.) Measles (norbil Itabeola). —this Is An Infectious Disease Occurring Most Commonly Among Children, Not Because Grown-up People Are Less Liable To Be Attacked, But Because Most People Have It In Childhood, And One Attack Protects Against Another. This Is Not A Rule, However, That ...

Menstruation
Menstruation. Menstruation (the Menses—monthlies—the Periods— The Courses) Is The Term Applied To The Process Whose External Evidence Is The Dis Charge From The Genital Organs. The Word Is Derived From The Latin Menstrualis, Meaning Monthly, From Mensis, A Month. The Discharge Comes Mainly From The Inner Surface Of The Womb, ...

Misca11iage And Abortion
Misca11:!iage And Abortion. These Terms Are Both Used To Indicate That The Offspring Las Been Expelled From The Womb Before The Full Period Of Pregnancy Is Com Pleted. Abortion Is The Word Which Ought To Be Employed When The Expulsion Takes Place Before The Eighth Month, Before The Period, That ...

Molar Pregnancy Or Slighted
Molar Pregnancy Or Slighted Ovum. Flesh-mole.—sometimes The Product Of Con Ception Dies Without Abortion Speedily Occur Ring. Owing To Some Part Of It Remaining Connected With The Womb, Growth Goes On, The Membranes Undergoing Thickening And De Generation. This May Continue Till At Length A Fleshy Mass Is Discharged, Called ...

Muscles Of The Back
Muscles Of The Back. A Great Number Of Muscles Massed Together Lies All Along The Back From The Neck To The Hip On Each Side Of The Middle Line, Filling Up The Hollow Between The Back - Bone And The Most Projecting Parts Of The Ribs. Their Function Is Chiefly ...

Muscles Of The Chest
Muscles Of The Chest. Some Of The Chest Muscles Will Be More Ap Propriately Considered In The Section On The Respiratory System, Since They Are Specially Concerned In The Act Of Breathing, And Are Therefore Classified Together Under Muscles Of Respiration. Under Muscles Of Respiration Is Included The Diaphragm, A ...

Muscles Of The Lower
Muscles Of The Lower Extremity. Muscles Of The Front Of The Thigh There Are Two Muscles Arising From The Front Of The Back-bone In The Lumbar Region, And From The Hollow Of The Haunch-bone. They Pass Over The Edge Of The Pelvic Bones To The Thigh-bone, And Become Attached To ...

Muscles Of The Upper
Muscles Of The Upper Extremity. The Muscles That Attach The Upper Extremity To The Trunk In Front And Behind Have Already Been Sufficiently Mentioned. Muscles Of The Shoulder. Chief Muscle Of The Shoulder Is The Deltoid (pl. X., Fig. 1, A). It Springs In Front From The Outer Portion Of ...

Muscular
Muscular Spasm—cramp. Cramp.—by This Is Meant The Spasmodic And Involuntary Contractions Of The Muscles Of The Body, Either Those Which Are Under The Con Trol Of The Will Or Voluntary Muscles, Or Those Which Are Not Subject To The Will, The Involun Tary Muscles. As An Example Of Cramp In ...

Nerve Cells And Fibres
Nerve Cells And Fibres. Nerve-cells Have A General Resemblance Under The Microscope To Other Cells. They Vary In Size From ,h, To Of An Inch. They Con Sist Of Masses Of Granular-looking Material Protoplasm—and Contain A Nucleus And Nucleo Lus (see Cells, P. 53), But Have No Cell Wall. Processes ...

New Growths Overgrowths
Overgrowths, New Growths, And Hemorrhages. Barbados Leg (elephantiasis Arabum) Is So Named From Its Frequent Occurrence In Bar Bados. It Is Common In Hot Climates — The West Indies, India, Arabia, Egypt, China, And The West Coast Of Africa. It Consists Of An Overgrowth Of The Skin And Connective Tissue, ...

Of Children
Of Children. Pustules, The Size Of A Pie's Head Or Millet Seed, Are Often Found In The Eyes Of Ill-nourished Children. Usually They Are On The Edge Of The Cornea, The Transparent Part Of The Eyeball, And Look Like Little Raised Ulcers. They Are Called In Medical Language Phiyctenm. Sometimes ...

Organs Of Motion And
Organs Of Motion And Locomotion. Ile Active Agents Of Movement In The Body Are The Muscles, Which, By Their Contraction, Cause The Bones To Move One On The Other, The Motion Being Permitted Owing To The Union Of Bones To One Another Being Accomplished Through Time Medium Of Joints. Of ...

Palpitation And Fainting
Palpitation And Fainting. Palpitation Has Already Been Commented On (p. 321). It Includes Irregular Action Of The Heart Of Various Forms, Which Produces Uncom Fortable Sensations Of Fluttering At The Heart, Throbbing, And Tumbling, And Is Attended By Other Feelings Of Anxiety Or Distress, Of Difficult Breathing, Of Giddiness And ...

Paralysis
Paralysis. Paralysis Comes From A Greek Verb Mean Ing To Relax Or Disable At The Side. Paresis And Palsy Are Terms Also Used To Imply The Same Condition Of Loss Of Power. The Paralysis May Mean Loss Of Power Of Moving, Or Loss Of Power Of Feeling. In Some Diseases ...

Period And Rate Of
Period And Rate Of Growth In Children. In The Previous Pages The Management Of Children From Birth Up To A Few Years Of Age Has Been Entered Into In Some Detail. It Is Not Necessary To Follow 'up That Section With One Considering The Management Of Children From The Earlier ...

Plague
Plague. Plague (bubonic Plague— Pestilence— The Pest—black Death).—this Is A Disease Believed To Have Been Observed As Early As The Second Century Before Christ. It Was Common- In Egypt, Other Parts Of Africa, And Asia. In The Sixth Century After Christ It Spread Over Europe. From That Time It Continued ...

Pleurisy And Dropsy Of
Pleurisy And Dropsy Of The Chest. Pleurisy (pleuritis) Is The Name Given To Inflammation Of The Serous Membrane That In Closes Each Lung As By A Sac. • The Membrane, As Described On P. :344, Is Formed Of A Double Layer, One Fold Being Closely Applied Over The Lung, And ...

Or Cerebrospinal The Central
The Central, Or Cerebrospinal, Nervous System. It Has Been Said That However Complicated A Nervous Structure May Appear To Be It Consists Essentially Of Nerve-cells And Nerve-fibres. In The Lower Animals, The Invertebrates, Or Those Which Have No Backbone, Cells Are Situ Ated In Groups In Certain Places In The ...