Skin diseases have been sufficiently discussed in Section XXI., p. 417 and following pages. In general they are to be treated by dieting, attention to the bowels, and frequent use of the bath and carbolic acid or tar soap.
Nettle-rash.—See p. 420.
Red-gum Rash.—See LtenEN, p. 427. is similar to the above, and to be treated in the same way.
See ECZEMA, p. may, however, be noted here regarding this skin affection that it is attended by the formation of "watery heads," which leak, are very itchy, and give rise to yellowish-green scabs. It occurs often on the head, ears, nose, &c. The scabs should be got rid of by warm poultices of soft mashed turnips. Bathing with warm water to which a pinch of soda has been added will relieve the itching. When the scabs have been completely removed, the yellow precipitate ointment mentioned on p. 426 should be used or, better still, a new ointment called chrisma sulphur. The child's system should be strength. ened by cod-liver oil, chemical food, &c.
Rickets. Refer to p. 71.
are to be prevented by treatment similar to that for rickets.
Scalds and Burns.—Remove the clothing as carefully as possible. Put the child in bet and see that it is warm. Arrange a box, wire guard, or other similar contrivance over tip burned part to keep off contact with bed clothes. Under such an arrangement the in ured part is to be kept free from cloths, cotton nr other material, while at the same time kept warm. Paint the part, by means of a feather, with a mixture of equal parts of raw linseed dl lime-water. This is very cool and soothing if freely and frequently applied. In ?very house a bottle of this mixture should be kept, and quickly painted on the slightest burn or scald. Should a child's clothing take fire, throw over it a shawl, blanket, or other woollen article, and so smother out the fire. If the mouth or throat have been severely scalded, let ice be sucked till medical aid is obtained.
Wounds and the wound is clean cut, bathe with cold water. This, with gentle but firm pressure, will stop bleeding. Remove any dirt or other foreign matter; bring the edges together accurately and keep them there with plaster and a bandage. To bruises apply cold-water cloths if it is attended to at once. This prevents swelling of the part. Any swelling, blueness, &c., which may result can afterwards be got rid of by aid of warm-water cloths. For wounds and bruises a recent remedy is very valuable, the extract of witch hazel. It is sold in America as Pond's extract; and in Great Britain a special preparation is sold under the name Hazeline.
Sprains. —Rest is the main treatment. If the sprain receives immediate attention, sur round the parts with cloths wrung out of iced water. This keeps down the swelling and re lieves pain. Later, or if the cold applications are disliked, apply warm cloths. When all pain and inflammation have quite passed away, but not till then, rubbing with or without lini ment will help to restore the use of the part.
Falls on the Head should receive careful attention. The child should be put to bed and keep quiet for the day. He should also receive a large dose of purgative medicine, castor-oil or syrup of Benne. Cold cloths should be kept to the head and only milk diet allowed. If the child is cold, warm bottles should be applied to the lower limbs, and the body gently rubbed, but no stimulants of any kind should be given.
a piece of food has stuck in the throat, support the child's head by the left arm, open the rnontlywith the handle of a spoon or a piece of wood, pass in the forefinger well to one side of the mouth against the cheek and push it right back into the throat. By sweeping the finger round, the mass may be hooked out.