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The Purpose Of Breathing
The Purpose Of Breathing. We Must Now Try To Understand What Is The Object Of The Remarkable And Complicated Struc Ture Of The Lungs And Of The Movements Which Have Been Described. The Gases Of The P. 295 It Has Been Shown That The Blood Contains Three Gases, Oxygen, Carbonic ...

The Sanatorium Treatment Of
The Sanatorium Treatment Of Consumption. Within Quite Recent Years Special Institutions, At First Only For Paying Patients, Later For The Poor Also, Have Been Opened For The Treatment Of Consumption. These Institutions Are Usually Built, Not, Like Most Hospitals, In The Centre Of Great Populations, And Where The People Live ...

The Sense Of Hearing
The Sense Of Hearing. The Perception Of Descrip Tion That Has Been Given Of The Very Compli Cated Structure Of The Ear Will Enable One To Perceive How Sounds Are Conveyed Into The Depths Of The Ear, But It Is Extremely Difficult To Understand How That Apparatus Enables Its Tc ...

The Sense Of Sight
The Sense Of Sight. The Perception Of Light. Agent That Excites The Terminations Of The Nerve-fibres In The Retina Is Light. The Sensation Of Light Is Produced In The Brain By Impulses Reaching Cer Tain Nerve-centres And Coining Along The Optic Nerves. These Impulses Are, In Ordinary Cir Cumstances, Sent ...

The Sense Of Touch
The Sense Of Touch. The Sense Of Touch Is Aroused By Stimulation Of The Nerve Terminations, Already Described, Either By Mechanical Means Or By Heat Or Cold. When We Lay Our Hand On Anything, The Mere Mechanical Contact With The Body Produces A Sensation Of Touch, And If The Body ...

The Skeleton
The Skeleton. The Skeleton Forms The Framework Of The Body, And Is Composed Of Bones United By Joints, In Many Cases Plates Or Pads Of Gristle Being Interposed Between The Opposing Bones To Per Mit Of Movement, The Union Being Strengthened By Fibrous Bands, Which Bind The One Bone To ...

The Spinal Cord
The Spinal Cord. The Spinal Cord Is In Direct Continuation With The Brain By Means Of The Medulla Oblongata, And Passes Down The Back, Lodged In The Canal Formed By The Rings Of The Vertebrae. It Is From .15 To 18 Inches Long, And Terminates At The Level Of The ...

The Stages Of Natural
The Stages Of Natural Labour. The First Stage Of Labour. — Natural Labour Is The Process By Which The Child Is Ex Pelled From The Womb And Born Into The World, It Occurs At The End Of The Ninth Calendar Month Of Pregnancy, Or, As Has Been Already Mentioned, About ...

The Structure Of Bone
The Structure Of Bone. Bones Consist Of An Earthy Or Mineral Part And An Animal Part. If A Bone, Say A Rib Of An Ox Or Sheep, Be Steeped For Several Weeks In Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, The Mineral Matter Is Dissolved Out By The Acid, And There Remains The Animal ...

The Structure Of The
The Structure Of The Kidneys. The Kidneys Are Two In Number, And Are Situated In The Cavity Of The Belly, One On Each Side Of The Back-bone, Between The Eleventh Rib And The Crest Of The Haunch Bone. The Liver Is Above The Right Kidney, The Spleen (p. 201) Above ...

The Structure Of The
The Structure Of The Skin. The Skin Consists Of A Deep Layer Called The Dermis, Corium, Or True Skin (cutis Vera), And Of A Superficial Layer—the Epider Mis (greek, Epi, Upon, And Derma, The Skin), Cuticle, Or Scarf Skin (a, Fig. 164). The True Skin Consists Of Fibrous Tissue, The ...

The Systemic Circulation
The Systemic Circulation. The Circulation Of The Blood Throughout The Whole Body Is Similar To The Circulation Through The Lungs Already Described (p. 302). The Former Is Called The Systemic Or Great Circulation, The Latter The Pulmonary Or Lesser Circulation. The Blood Which Fills The Left Ventricle Is, By Contraction, ...

The Treatment Of Fever
The Treatment Of Fever. If What Has Been Said About The Cause Of In Creased Temperature Has Been Understood, It Will Be Clear That, In Most Cases, Treatment Merely To Lower The Temperature Is Uncalled For. The High Temperature Is Merely The Evidence Of A Process Going On In The ...

The Treatment Of Inflammation
The Treatment Of Inflammation. Inflammations Of External Parts.—it Is Not Difficult To Lay Down The Broad Principles On Which Treatment Of Inflammation, Wherever Occurring, Shonld Proceed. But It Is Not Always Easy To Apply These Principles In Detail Ill Any Given Case. For Instance, One May Truly Say That The ...

The Urine
The Urine. Physical Characters Of Urine. —the Characters Of The Urine Excreted By The Healthy Kidney Are Well Defined ; And They Undergo , Marked Alterations In Disease. It Will, There Be Of Value To State Here The Characters And Chemical Constitution Of Healthy Urine And The Chief Alterations Urine ...

Their Structure And Functions
Their Structure And Functions (anatomy And Physiology). The Conditions Of Sensation.—the Senses Are The Avenues By Means Of Which Information Reaches The Individual Regarding The Condition Of His Own Body, And Concerning The Outward World Which Surrounds Him, And Of The Manner In Which It Affects Him. Every Living Being, ...

Throat Affections Of The
Affections Of The Nose, Throat, And Ears. Obstruction Of The Nostrils And Dis Charge From The Nose Are Extremely Troublesome Ailments In Young Children, Be Cause The Nasal Passages Are So Narrow That The Slightest Catarrhal Swelling Blocks Them Entirely. The Child Cannot Breathe Through The Nostrils, And Is Restless ...

To Prevent The Spread
To Prevent The Spread Of Infection. The Following Rules Should Be Adopted In Infectious Disease To Prevent Infection Spread Ing:— 1. Place The Patient In A Room By Himself, From Which Carpets, Curtains, And Hangings Of Every Description, Including Pictures, &c., Have Been Removed. All Furniture, Except A Wooden Table ...

Tonsils Diseases Of The
Diseases Of The Throat, Tonsils, And Gullet. Catarrh Is The Proper Medical Term For The Disease Commonly Called "cold," Or " Cold-in Thelead." It Is Sometimes, Though Improperly, Called Influenza, For True Influenza Is An Epi Demic Disease. Weed Is The Term Applied To Catarrh By The People. Its Cause ...

Topography Of Abdominal Organs
Topography Of Abdominal Organs. (plates Xii., Xiii., Xiv.) To Make Still Clearer The Position Of The Vari Ous Organs In The Cavity Of The Belly, A Series Of Plates Has Been Prepared. Each Plate Repre Sents The Situation Of One Or More Organs, The Others Being At The Moment Neglected. ...

Treatment Of Wounds
Treatment Of Wounds, P. 530, Vol. Keep The Inflamed Part At Rest Is The Next Most Vital Injunction. In The Case, For Instance, Of The Inflamed Hand, The Continued Use Of The Hand Can Only Help To Maintain And Aggravate The Inflammation With Its Attendant Throbbing Of Pain. Keeping The ...

Tuberculosis And Scrofula
Tuberculosis And Scrofula. Tuberculosis Is The Term Applied To A General Disease, Due To The Formation Of Tuber Cles In Various Organs Of The Body. The Nature Of Tubercles Has Been Shortly Explained On P. 255, And At Greater Length On P. 372, But To Give A Complete Idea Of ...

Tumours Of The Womb
Tumours Of The Womb. Three Forms Of Tumour Of The Womb Are Of Comparatively Frequent Occurrence, Namely Polypus, Fibroid Or Fibrous Tumour, And Cancer. There Is One Broad Distinction Between The Two Former Of These And The Latter, And That Is, That The Two Former Are Simple Tumours, Formed Of ...

Typhus Fever And Typhoid
Typhus Fever And Typhoid Or Enteric Fever. Typhus Fever Is A Very Infectious Fever. The Infection Seems To Come Off From A Patient In The Breath, And Not, As In Typhoid Fever, In The Motions From The Bowels. The Infectious Matter, However, Does Not Seem To Thrive In The Open ...

Unusual Conditions Of The
Unusual Conditions Of The Urine And Their Detection. The Examination Of The Urine.—a Care Ful Examination Of The Urine Is Capable Of Yield Ing Very Important Indications Of The State Of Health Of A Person. Sometimes The Presence Of A Disease, Quite Unsuspected, Is Revealed By It, And It Is ...

Use Of Medicines
Use Of Medicines. If Infants Are Properly Managed They Require Little Medicine Of Any Kind. But With Many People It Is A Matter Of Custom To Give A Dose Of Castor-oil, Or Magnesia, At Regular Intervals, Every Two Or Three Days, Or Once Or Twice A Week. According To Their ...

Vaccination
Vaccination. This Is Compulsory By Law In Great Britain Within The First Six Mouths Of Infant Life. The Purpose And Value Of Vaccination Have Been Fully Discussed On Pp. 526-530. It May Be Advisable To Re-state Here That A Child Should Be Vaccinated Between The Second And Fourth Month After ...

Various Forms Of Eruption
Various Forms Of Eruption (rash), &c., Of The Skin. The Pimple Or Papule Is A Solid Elevation Above The Level Of The Skin, Between A Millet Need And A Lentil In Size. It Apparently Contains No Fluid. It May Be Of The Colour Of The Natural Akin, Reddish, Bluish, Or ...

Windpipe Diseases Of The
Diseases Of The Larynx, Windpipe, And Bronchial Tubes. A Description Of Catarrh, Or "cold In The Head," Is Given On P. 214, And It Has There Been Pointed Out How This Condition, Beginning In The Nose, May Extend To The Throat And On To The Windpipe And Bronchial Tubes, Developing, ...

Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever. Yellow Fever (black Vomit—yellow Jack) Is A Disease Of Hot Climates. Cold Kills It. It Is Rarely Absent From The West Indies, And Is Most Fatal From May To August. It Is Due To An Organism, But, Like Ague, Is Not Communi Cable From Person To Person. The ...