VEGETABLES, PEANUTS AND NAVAL STORES 179. Vegetables in the winter time.— Have you ever thought how it is that when the snow covers the ground in the winter time, in the northern states, people living in those states see lettuce, fresh beets, and many other fresh vegetables for sale in the city grocery stores? If you ask the grocer he will tell you that the fresh things come by fast train from the South Atlantic States,—or from California. Florida farm ers can ship vegetables in the winter, be cause in the tip end of Florida a whole winter sometimes goes by without any frost at all. There is never any frost at Key West, out in the warm water of the gulf. In this warmer part of Florida, pine apples, grapefruit, and oranges are grown. In central Florida a few frosts come, but the weather is warm nearly all the winter. The people here grow vegetables to send to the northern states during February and March.
There is much sandy soil near the sea in all the states from Florida to Delaware. The farmers plant whole fields of lettuce, watermelons, beans, beets, cabbage, pota toes, and other vegetables, for these crops do well in such soil. A traveler may often see twenty to thirty loaded farm wagons and motor trucks at a single station. A farm that grows vegetables for market is called a truck farm.
Since the first vegetables in the market bring the highest prices, every farmer tries to plant early. But sometimes, if he plants too early, a frost comes and kills every thing. - Then he has to plant again. One year a Florida farmer had his young plants frozen three times. But he planted the fourth time, and made money on the crop.
180. Canned vegetables.— The peninsula between the Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware Bay is one of the places with many truck farms.
Many of the vegetables grown in this region are sent to fac tories and canned for winter use. Baltimore is one of the greatest .canning cities in the world, because of the supplies of fruit and vegetables brought by the many boats that go up and down the creeks and rivers flowing into the Chesa peake Bay. Many farmers along the shore have their own boat landings. When you go to your grocery store, see if you do not find some Maryland addresses on the fruit and vegetable cans. You may also find Cali fornia addresses, for California, too, has vegetable fields and canneries.
181. school boy and every school girl has surely seen something that came from North Carolina, for every body has eaten peanuts. The negroes brought peanuts with them from Africa, many years ago, and grew them around their cabins on the plantations. White
people soon learned how good they were. One of the reasons we all like them so well is because they have almost as much oil in them as there is in butter. In fact, one of the leading uses of this nut is to make peanut butter. • The nuts grow under the ground. When they are ripe, the whole plants are plowed up and stacked to dry. Then a threshing machine knocks the pods loose from the plants, just as the wheat grains are loos ened from the straw. There are several counties south west of Norfolk where nearly every farmer grows peanuts. In the city of Norfolk there are great warehouses full of peanuts waiting to be sent all over the country.
After the farmer has secured all the peanuts he can from the field, the pigs are turned in to eat those that remain in the ground. The pig's nose tells him where the nuts are, and then roots them out for him. In many parts of the South, fields of peanuts are grown especially for the pigs to harvest, peanuts being very good indeed to make pigs grow and gives them meat.
only the big trees. They never draw tur pentine from a tree until it has grown big enough to be cut down; then they bleed it to death by drawing off all the sap it has. Then the tree is sold and the younger trees are left to grow until they are big enough to sell. By this means there are naval stores and wood to sell every year, and the forests are always growing. In many American forests fire has killed all young trees.
182. Naval stores.—At southern sea port towns you can see three things piled up on the wharves waiting for the ships to take them away. These three things are bales of cotton, piles of lumber, and barrels of rosin and turpentine. Rosin and turpentine are sometimes called naval stores because the rosin is used in building wooden ships. Naval stores are made from the sticky sap of the pine trees that cover so large a part of these states.
The way in which rosin and turpentine are obtained is by making a wound in the tree, from which the sap runs out into a cup fastened to the trunk, or into a pocket cut in the side of the tree. The turpentine gatherer takes buckets of this sap to a little shanty in the forest, wheie it is boiled and separated into turpentine and rosin. Much of the rosin is .
sent to Europe.
In France, they gather naval stores in a better way than we do. Our, turpentine gatherers often kill the forests entirely. The French forest owners have a plan by which they get turpentine and still keep the forest. They tap