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Switzerland and Austria 353

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SWITZERLAND AND AUSTRIA 353. Aland of mountains.—We already know several things about life in Switzer land, the home of Franz. It is a good little country all hemmed in by moun tains. Much of the higher part is always covered with snow. Below the snow are the mountain pas tures and the moun tain forests; and, still farther down, the hay fields, orchards, gar dens, and farms. Bear and deer do not live in these moun tains as they do in our Rockies. Men have hunted on the Swiss mountains so long that the only large wild animal there now is the chamois, a wild, rock-climbing animal something like a goat and very difficult to shoot.

354. Three Swiss people have three different languages. Those living in the valleys opening south into Italy speak Italian; those living in the valleys opening west toward France speak French; those in the valleys sloping north speak German. When the Swiss Government prints a book, it must print it in the three languages. But no matter what language they speak, the people of Switzerland are always sure that they are Swiss.

355. A free Swiss Government is a republic, and it is a very good government indeed. It keeps good schools and good roads, and is just and kind in its dealings with people. Most of the open plains of Europe have been con quered many times by kings and generals with their armies. But mountains are so hard for armies to take that the Swiss have been one of the freest peoples in the world. Instead of a legislature to which a few people are ap pointed to make laws for all, the voters of some Swiss valleys all meet at the public square of the town and vote by hundreds for what the people want. (See Fig. 357.) 356. Good work Switzerland has so few things that men can use, the people have to be very skilful in using what they have, and they must also be very industrious. They pay for most of the many things they must buy by helping travelers in their country to have a pleasant time. Then, too, they sell cheese and milk, chocolate, watches, fine machinery for factories, wood carvings, lace, ribbons, silk, and toys. Many of the toys in American toy stores come from Switzer land.

Berne is the capital. Basel and Zurich have factories for making silk and lace; Geneva is the watch-making center. You

have probably heard of Swiss watches. Geneva, which is on beautiful Lake Gen eva, was selected to be the capital of the world, the seat of the League of Nations.

357. Austria.—A large part of the Alps lies in that part of western Austria called "The Tyrol". The mountains there are not so high as they are in Switzerland, but, except for the snow fields, it is the same kind of country. The mountain farms and pastures enable the people to sell sheep, cattle, and horses. From the mountain forests, good oak lumber is sent to other parts of Europe. Sometimes the people in the towns make this lumber into fur niture before it is sent away from Austria.

Eastern Austria is in the valley of the Danube River and its branches. There the farmers grow wheat, barley, rye, and many potatoes.

Parts of Austria have thick layers of salt under the ground, and salt mines have been worked for a long time. There is a city called Salzburg (Saltburg), because the people there work in the salt mines. Austria has also a small coal field, and Vienna, the ,capital, has some manufac tures. But Austria does not have as much trade as do those countries, like Belgium and England, that import many raw materials.

The Danube River is the chief highway of Austria. Some of Austria's trade, how ever, goes over to the Adriatic Sea at Trieste in Italy, and to the North Sea by way of the Elbe and the Rhine.

Before the World War, the King of Austria was the Emperor of Austria-Hun gary, just as the King of Prussia, the largest state in Germany, was Emperor of Ger many. This empire of Austria-Hungary had so many different races of people in it that eleven different languages were spoken in the Parliament that met in Vienna. Most of these peoples did not want to be a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the World War was started by a quarrel between the Austrians and the Serbians. The old empire is now divided between seven countries,—Poland, Czecho slovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Jugoslavia, Italy, and the present Austria. This new Austria is about the size of West Virginia, and has about as many people as Belgium.