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The East Temperate Agricul Tural Region 879

australia, wheat, coast, corn, united and kansas

THE EAST TEMPERATE AGRICUL TURAL REGION 879. A small southeastern United States with cyclonic storm weather.—You will re member that the eastern sides of continents in the latitude of Australia have a region of moist summers that are good for corn. Such regions are found in southeastern United States, in southern Brazil and Uruguay, in Natal, and in China. (Sec. 769.) Australia also has one of those eastern temperate agricultural districts.

To understand this Australian region, we should think of it as we did of the East Temperate Agricultural Region of South America—as another region much like that part of the United States between the South Atlantic Coast and the Great Plains of Okla homa and Kansas. Find the parts of the eastern coast of the United States that are the same distance from the equator as is the southeast coast of Australia from Bass Strait to Brisbane. What Australian states are between these places? Cyclonic storms travel from west to east across Australia and the seas to the east of Australia, very much as they do across the United States and the Atlantic Ocean. (Secs. 61 to 66.) This means, of course, that dur ing the passing of one of these storms, the wind at a given place blows from more than one direction. Notice that on our southern Atlantic coast the cold wind comes over the land. (Fig. 64.) What about the cold wind for the southern Australian coast? Which of these coasts do you think has the warmer winter? Why? (Sec. 409.) (Figs. 328, 329).

Having rain all the year, this East Tem perate Agricultural Region is a land for forests, pastures, dairy farms, cattle, and corn. Great quantities of butter and meat go from this region to England in refrigerator ships. The Australian east coast plain is narrower than our own, because the Aus tralian mountains are closer to the sea than the Appalachians are. Like our own coast plain, it is by no means all used; much of it is still in forests, and the farms of New South Wales and Victoria together do not grow as much corn as do the farms of New Jersey, a state not important as a corn producer.

880. Another central Kansas.—After cross ing the southeastern mountains of Australia, which are much like our own Appalachians, but not so wide, we soon come into land like central Kansas, or central Argentina. The rainfall is scanty. The plains are treeless. No longer are we in the land of corn. Much winter wheat is grown, as in central Kansas west of the Corn Belt, and in-Argentina west of its corn belt. The wheat map (Fig. 88) shows a long belt of wheat just inside the southeastern Australian mountains. This belt is not very wide; so that in all her three wheat regions (Sec. 875, Fig. 88) Australia grows only about as much wheat as our own state of Kansas. The amount, however, is irregular because of droughts.

Australian wheat is grown very much as the Kansas wheat is grown. Many of the reapers and plows are made in the United States, and some of the wheat, like that from Kansas and Manitoba, is eaten in England, almost at the other side of the world from the place where it is grown. In this section, west of the mountains, that part of the land not in wheat is used for great sheep farms (Fig. 630).

881. Cities.—The southeastern farming region is the most populous part of Australia, and has the two greatest cities: Sydney, about the size of St. Louis; and Melbourne, as large as Baltimore. The Australians are proud of their cities, which are as well-built, and up-to-date as any cities in the world.

capitals of states as well as great centers of foreign trade. Each has a university. Nearly all the manufacturers who are in this part of Australia, as well as most of the traders, do business in these cities.

Sydney has grown larger than Melbourne, partly because of a coal field, which gives her not only power to run her factories, but also supplies an export cargo for ships to carry across the Pacific to New Zealand and to the nitrate ports on the coast of Chile.