THE MANUFACTURES 220. Ports and water have already seen that the fishing vessels helped the people of New England to sell their goods, and brought them raw materials for their factories. This gave manufacturing an early start. The many good harbors on the crooked coast also helped very much in this, for ships can make a landing close to any town that is near the New England shore. Some countries have long, straight coasts with no place for a ship to land. New England also had another great help in starting her factories. Almost every New England river and creek has many waterfalls, so that it was easy for the people to have water wheels in many, many places to run their factories. That is why New England has so many cities rather than a few big ones. But there is now so much manufacturing in New England that many of the factories in southern New England are run by coal, instead of by water.
221. Fine England has no mines of coal or metal. She has to buy both of these things. Therefore she makes metals into fine and costly goods to sell, so that a little metal brings a lot of money. Look at some boxes in the hard ware store, and you will see many Connec ticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts names. These states send all over the United States, and all over the world, skates, rifles, pistols, cartridges, hardware (Bridgeport, Connecticut), machinery (Worcester, Massachusetts), clocks (Wal tham, Massachu setts), and brass goods and jewelry (Providence, Rhode Island).
The skilled workers of New England make so many, many kinds of things that the mere list of them would fill two chap ters in this book. In the one city of Worcester, Massachusetts, the census taker found that the people were manufacturing 2200 different articles.
You remember (Sec. 94) that the high lands of New England are a forest country, where lumbermen in logging camps pile logs beside the streams for the spring log drive. Many of these logs are made into paper, in mills beside the waterfalls. Sometimes, when heavy snow storms block the New England railroads, the newspapers of New York and Philadelphia do not have paper enough to print all the advertising they can get.
222. New England trades with all the states.—The industries of New England show how each group of states depends on every other group. In Fall River, New Bedford, and Lowell, Massachusetts, are great cotton mills, where thousands of men, women, and big boys and girls earn their living by mak ing cloth from South ern cotton, and sell ing it to the people in Maryland, Montana, Name one or two important articles that New England must buy from each of the groups of states in order to keep all her factories running and her people fed.
The New England factories have needed so many workers that people have come to work in them from Portugal, Italy, Poland, Ireland, Canada, and other coun tries. One can hear foreign languages in many New England factory towns.
Boston is the largest New England city. It has steamship lines to many countries. A canal has been dug across Cape Cod, to shorten the boat journey to New York and southern cities. (Recall Sec. 188.) Boston, however, has no such waterway to the interior as New York has, and so it has not grown so large.
and other states. Lawrence, Massachu setts, and Providence, have many mills making cloth out of wool that comes from the Plateau States and from far-away Australia and Argentina. For many years New England made more cloth than all the rest of the United States, and even now every 'dry goods store has New England thread or fabric in it.
The people of Massachusetts used to wear shoes made from the skins of their own animals. Now the city of Boston is a great leather market, to which ships bring skins from many foreign countries. In Boston and neighboring cities, tanneries make the skins into leather, and huge fac tories turn the leather into boots and shoes that go to millions of people who do not live in New England—even to people in Aus tralia and other countries across the seas.