THE NEW ENGLAND-CANADIAN MARI TIME DISTRICT 233. A rugged coast.—North of Cape Cod the seacoast does not have the long, straight, sandy beaches that we find between Cape Cod and the Rio Grande. Instead, from Massachusetts to the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Figs. 210, 216) most of the coast is rocky and crooked, with deep bays and many rocky islands along the shore. In the Bay of Fundy the water is so deep at high tide that big ships can then sail over places where there is bare sand or mud at low tide. In most places the tide rises only a few feet, but the shape of the Bay of Fundy makes the tide there rise forty or fifty feet, which is the highest tide in the world. (See Appendix.) 234. Fishing.—There are many shallow places called fishing banks off the shores of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfound land. The water is so shallow that cod and other fish can be caught from the bottom of the sea, and cold seas are richer in fish than warm seas. From the earliest settlement of this region many of the people have made their living by catching cod and other fish. Gloucester and Boston in Massachusetts, and Halifax and Yarmouth in Nova Scotia are the chief fishing ports. The rugged coast is full of harbors.
235. A rugged land.—Instead of a stone less and level plain like that of New Jersey or Carolina, the New England-Canadian Mari time District is a land of stony soil, rolling hills, and tumbling streams. What are its bounds? The glaciers that once covered it sometimes dammed up the streams, often turned their valleys into lakes, and forced them to flow in new channels, often down rocky hills. In watercourses such as these there are many waterfalls. Since much of the land is rocky as well as hilly, it could not be plowed easily, so trees still cover most of its surface.
236. Changing industries.—The first set tiers who came to this hilly country made their living by farming on small stony farms. At first they made nearly everything they used. But when the factories were started in the towns, many of the farmers went to work in them, and abandoned their rocky, hilly farms. Other farmers left this region to go to
the corn and wheat belts of the MiddleWest, when they were opened to settlers. There was still another period when farms were abandoned. This was during the World War. Then factories were rushed and wages were high because war supplies had to be produced.
It is not hard to see why this section has changed from a farming to an industrial region. The harbors have made it a good place for fishing and trading, and the water falls have furnished power to factory wheels; hence this beautiful country has become a land of towns, rather than of farms.
237. Changing people.—People from many parts of the world are living here. The early settlers of the New England-Canadian Mari time District were chiefly English and Scotch. The name Nova Scotia means New Scotland. After the Revolutionary War, many of the New England people who pre ferred to stay under English rule went from New England to New Brunswick, where the people are still very much like the English. When the New England factories needed more workers, many people came from Ire land, and later others came from Italy, and from the French-speaking province of Quebec in Canada. More recently still, many workers and their families have come to Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Con necticut, from Portugal, Poland, and Syria.
238. Factories and cities.—Early in the morning the mill whistle in hundreds of towns and small cities blows a long, loud blast that can be heard for miles. This is a call to the workers to get up. A little later the whistle blows again, and thousands of workers start for the factory. At another toot from the whistle all start to work at their machines.
In no other part of North America do so many of the people live in cities. In Massa chusetts and Rhode Island over nine-tenths of the people are city dwellers. There are many small cities instead of a few big ones. This is because most of the manufacturing cities have grown up around waterfalls, and there are so many waterfalls and so many harbors that there are a great many cities.