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The Ships and Shipbuilders of Europe 305

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THE SHIPS AND SHIPBUILDERS OF EUROPE 305. A continent of many countries.— Europe is not a hot land like most of South America, but a land having frost like the United States. It was from this good con tinent of Europe that the many kinds of white people came who settled in North America. People still come from Europe to America, to live. Such people are now called immigrants.

Europe has more countries than either `South America or North America. Alto gether there are more than twenty countries in Europe, and the people there speak more than twenty languages. In some countries there are two or three kinds of people, each having a different language.

The people of many European countries have helped to build up the United States; but Great Britain has done more than any other country, for it is from her that we get our English language and the kind of government in which the people pick out law-makers by voting for them. People still speak of England as the "Mother Country" of the United States, although we have been an independent nation for nearly a century and a half.

306. The at the globe or at the map of the world (Fig. 40) and compare the size of the United States with that of the British Isles. You can easily understand that when many people live close together on such small islands they need to build and to have many ships.

Mary McGregor is a shipbuilder's daughter. She lives in a little stone house in Scotland, near the city of Glasgow, on the bank of the river Clyde. The Clyde is not a big stream like the Hudson or the Delaware. Once horses used to wade across it near Glasgow. But now at that Same place men have dug out the dirt and blasted away the rocks, making the water deep enough for ocean steamers to come up to the city. At many other places along the coast the people of Great Britain have done much digging and blasting to make channels deep enough to float big ships.

From the door of her home, Mary Mc Gregor looks across the Clyde into a ship yard, where she can see the row of long ways (slides) on which ships are built. She sees ships grow, day by day, as her father and other men, with noisy hammers, rivet piece of ter piece of steel to the grow ing ships. When a ship at last is finished,

many people come to see it launched. To launch a ship the props are loosened, letting the great heavy mass of steel slide into the water where it bobs lightly up and down. A puffing little tug boat pulls it up to a long wharf. There it is tied fast, and for many days and weeks men are busy putting in the engines and machinery that will make this great iron house swim across the sea and carry men's burdens.

The many parts of a steel ship are made in different buildings of the yard. In one the great plates for the boilers are riveted together with red-hot rivets; in another, the engines are built; in another, the great outer plates of steel are made and rivet holes punched along the edges. On the ways, these sheets are riveted to gether over the steel frame work which has come from its separate building. Many machines and many workmen are needed to make the tarts of ships and to put them to gether.

The coal used in melting the ore was dug from a deep mine a few miles away, for south Scotland has one of the many coal fields to be found in this lucky Island of Britain.

307. Other United Kingdom of Great Britain and,Ire land owns more ships and builds more ships than any other country in the world. There are shipyards in many British cities, particularly on the river Clyde near Glas gow, on the river Tyne, near Newcastle, and at Belfast in Ireland. The Danes build ships at Copenhagen; the Norwe gians build them at Christiania; the Dutch at Rotterdam; the Italians at Genoa; the Germans at Hamburg and Stettin.

had a different language? Why? 7. Compare the number of countries in Europe and in North America; in Europe and South America. Which of the continents that you have studied has th fewest countries? 8. How are the Clyde and the Delaware Rivers alike? 9. Find Glasgow (Fig. 321) and Philadelphia (Fig. 198). What is alike in their location? in manufactures? 10. Of what material were Columbus' ships made? Why are steel ships better than his? What drove his ships forward? What two kinds of fuel drive steel ships forward? 11. Write an interesting paragraph about "Shipbuilding on the Clyde River."