THE SIX NEEDS OF ALL MANKIND 1. Something in which all races are alike. —People .differ from each other in race, in color, and in the kinds of places in which they live. Yet all mankind is alike in having six needs. Every man in the world needs (1) food, (2) fuel with which to cook the food, (3) a house or some other form of shelter, (4) clothes to wear, (5) tools to help him make and carry goods, and (6) luxuries or ornaments to please his sense of beauty and his love of ornament, of power, or of play. Name two of each class.
In having these six needs all men are brothers. No matter of what color or race a man may be, he struggles to get these needed things. The things themselves are very different among different peoples, but every people has some of all six kinds. The Eskimo needs more clothes than does the black man in the hot forest near the equa tor. The black man does not need a warm house, but he needs a leaf shelter to keep off the sun and the rain. Every race makes tools for the work that has to be done, and every tribe and people has its sports, games, and playthings.
2. Different ways of meeting the needs.— Men in different places get the six kinds of needful things in many, many different ways. The world has so many kinds of land and so many kinds of climate, that men have found various materials to use. Since men have learned how to build railroads and steam ships and automobiles, they can travel easily and can get the needed materials from widely separated parts of the earth. It has been only a few decades that it has been possible to go to the stores and buy so many kinds of things. Not long ago the people of each neighborhood had to make nearly all of the things they used. There are still a few places like that.
3. Life far back in the mountains.— Recently a man visited such a home in the heart of the Appalachian Mountains. From the railroad station he had to ride for a whole day on horseback along a narrow path that followed a creek. Sometimes, because high hills rose on each side, the valley was so narrow and steep that the horse had to walk in the creek. All the country seemed to be
hillsides. There was no level land on the hilltops, and very little in the valleys. Once in a while a valley would widen out enough to make room for a little field near a cabin.
At evening the traveler reached the home where Dave Douglas lived with his wife and five children. Dave had cut trees from the forest to make the rude, one-roomed cabin which sheltered the family. Behind the house were his garden, his small field of corn, and his many acres of forest. The floor and the door of the cabin were made of boards hewn out of logs. Even the latch on the door was made of wood. The window was just a hole cut in the side of the wall. Dave had no glass to put in it; instead he used a piece of board, which could be pushed over the hole when it rained or the wind blew cold. There was no stove; only a hearth on which an open fire could be made. In the fireplace hung an iron pot in which food might be boiled. For frying, there were two skillets which hung on pegs beside the fire. The plates used by the family were wooden and homemade. The only things that had been bought from a store were an axe, a gun, powder and shot, steel traps, three hoes, a spinning wheel, knives and forks, pot and skillets, a tin bucket, a dish pan, salt, blue overalls and jackets for the men, cotton dresses for the women, and needles and thread.
4. Home-raised food.— For breakfast the family ate corn cakes and salt pork, and sometimes eggs. They fried the pork in a skillet over the open fire. They mixed cornmeal with water in the dishpan, and then baked it in the other skillet. Their dinner was like their breakfast, except that they added boiled potatoes and cabbage, and some blackberries which they had picked from bushes at the edge of the woods. Supper was the same as breakfast, unless one of the older children was lucky enough to shoot some squirrels in the woods, in which case the whole family had fried squir rel. Alf, Dave's fifteen-year-old boy, care fully skinned all the squirrels that were brought home, because skins were needed to make caps for the next winter.