THE TRADE AND FUTURE OF AUS TRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 897. A raw material region.—People of Australia have a very great trade in pro portion to their numbers, because they are a rich people living in a region rich in raw materials. They export raw materials and :mport a great variety of Why? People with so much land find they can make more money by producing raw materials than by working in factories. So we find in each part of the continent, that any given locality exports the things which the conditions of that locality makes it eas iest for men with much land to produce.
898. The region and the product.—In South Aus tralia, with the California climate, we found the Cal ifornia products of fruit, wool, and wheat. In the dry pastoral regions of Aus tralia, there are flocks of wool-producing sheep (Fig. 627). In the eastern dis tricts of New South Wales and Victoria more rain falls, and consequentlybetter and richer grass grows. There the farmers have cows, and big, fat sheep which do not bear so much wool as the merinos, but which make much more mutton. At„ the ports the shee frozen, and then sent in refrigerator ships to Europe and America.
Chief of all the exports of this far continent is wool. Each year about one hundred pounds is exported for each man, woman, and child in British Australia. Much of the best woolen cloth used in the United States is made of wool from Australia.
The hot grasslands of Queensland and the moist grasslands of New Zealand produce beef cattle. Some of the meat is canned, and some of it is frozen at the packing houses in the coast towns.
The great shipments of dairy products come from the moist lands of Victoria and New Zealand.
899. The imports.—Some of the wool, along with much American cotton, comes back from England after it has been made into cloth. The people of Australia import vast quantities of clothing, machinery, metal goods, petroleum, dishes, glass, and all kinds of things which one finds in a store. There
are many factories in Australian cities but they do not make. half of the thousands of kinds of articles that are sold in Australian stores. Most of the imported supplies come from the United Kingdom and the United States.
900. The future trade.—The people of Australia have so much unused land that it will pay them to keep on producing raw materials. All of the cultivated land in Australia is less than one-hundredth of the total area of the continent. Several times as much could be cultivated if the world market needed the produce. The Aus tralians need to use more of their land be fore they build many factories. That is the reason why Australia, with all her forests, has not a single mill manufacturing paper from wood pulp. This trade of raw materials in exchange for manufactures will probably continue a great many years.
901. The future industry.—If rain fell in Australia as it does in Europe, there would be room for three hundred million people. Even with her deserts and droughts she could feed several times as many people as she does.
As for New Zealand, it is about six sevenths the size of Great Britain, is almost as good for farming, and is cultivating only one acre in forty. In Belgium two acres out of three are cultivated each year. Plainly, rich New Zealand with its good climate might easily feed many times as many people as are now living in it. We are safe in saying that Australia and New Zealand can produce for export, if the world needs them, great quantities of fruit, dried milk, butter, cheese, meat, wool, and other agricultural products. It is true, however, that few immigrants are settling there now, and that the pop ulation is increasing very slowly.
We should remember that New Zealand and the south ern half of Australia are cool lands where white men can be healthy and feel ener getic, and that they are now settled by well-educated white people having a high civilization and a good government.