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The Trade of Europe and the World 607

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THE TRADE OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD 607. Likeness of North America and Europe.—We found that the greatest trade in North America was carried on between the densely-peopled factory area in the northeast, and the food and raw material areas of the north, west, and south. In Europe and the Mediterranean world we find a similar ex change of goods. Where are the raw material areas? (Figs. 319, 467.) 608. The easy routes of Europe.—Look at the maps (Figs. 14, 319) and explain why it is easier to trade in Europe than it is in North America. Show how Europe can have two sets of routes: (1) the water routes for heavy freight, such as grain, ore, iron, and wood; and (2) the railroads for express, mail, and passenger traffic. Why are several nations anxious to control the straits of Gibraltar and the Bosporus? Except in Russia, the European railroads run many fast trains, which are nearly always on time.

609. Travel centers and connections.— The greatest European railroad centers are London, Paris, and Berlin. Express trains leave London and connect at channel ports with boats that run across the channel like ferries, taking the traveler by one of several routes to Paris. From Paris the traveler may go to Madrid, Marseille, Geneva, Rome, and Naples; or he may take the Oriental Express to Vienna, Belgrade, Sofia, and Constanti nople. Across the narrow Bosporus is the great terminal station that was built by the Germans at the end of the Bagdad road. On this railroad the traveler may cross part of Turkey in Asia. The line is planned to reach Bagdad, where he may take steamboat passage to Bassora near the head of the Persian Gulf. Doubtless a railroad will some day go on from Mes opotamia to India.

From London a traveler going eastward may take boat for Rotterdam. From that city he may proceed by train to Berlin, and at Berlin three main routes spread out: one northeast ward to Petrograd and Fin land ; one southeastward tc Breslau and Odessa; and one eastward to Moscow and Siberia. From Moscow a line goes south to the oil fields of Baku at the eastern end of the Caucasus, and another goes through Oren burg, past the shores of the Aral Sea, far into central Asia. The main line crosses Siberia to Vladivostok, and when the road is in working order it is one section of the quickest route around the world.

610. The Mediterranean and the Suez Mediterranean and its arms make a most useful natural route, but men have made it a still greater route by building the Suez Canal. The waters of the Red Sea

came so close to the Mediterranean that men carried freight across the narrow, level, sandy isthmus for several thousand years. Even in Pharaoh's time a small canal was there, but it became filled with desert sand. When steamships came into general use, there was much more freight to be carried across from one sea to the other. Thousands of camels then labored back and forth shifting cargo from Port Said to Suez.

When the French engineer De Lesseps finished the Suez Canal through the desert isthmus, he enlivened the trade between Europe and Asia. Especially did he wake up the cities of the Mediterranean and South Europe. Algiers, Malta, and Port Said became great coaling stations. So did Aden, although it is in a place so dry that even the drinking water must be condensed from sea water. The traffic through the new canal built up Genoa, the port of North Italy and Switzerland, and made Marseille a greater center for the trade in olive oil, peanut oil, and palm oil. By bringing trade to Medi terranean ports, the Suez Canal helped put three great tunnels under the Alps. Fast through trains now run from France, Germany, and Den mark to the Italian cities.

611. Ports of international concern.—This region has a number of cities called "Ports of International Concern." They are so called because the League of Nations has been given some authority over their trade, so that the peoples and countries near by may all have a fair opportunity for trade. Name these cities. (Fig. 324.) 612. Europe's needs.—Europe has a great trade within itself and with the other parts of the Mediterranean world, but it has so many people and so many factories that it also needs other continents to supply food and raw materials in exchange for manufactures. We have already seen that the American producers find in Europe a market for their wheat, corn, meat, cotton, oil, and lumber. We shall see that every other continent that we study also has a great trade with Europe; in most cases a greater trade than with North America. This happens because Europe has many more cities and more people than North America (Appendix), and conse quently has need for more things.