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The Trade of North America 392

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THE TRADE OF NORTH AMERICA 392. The new world of lands.—Christopher Columbus and the other brave explorers found a new world of lands. A new world of trade came later. The explorers showed the people of Europe a new sea route to India, and they proved that there were such lands as North America, South America, South Africa, and Australia. But these discoveries did not make much difference in the lives of men because machines, rail ways, and steamships were lacking.

Even in George Washing ton's time, men were still getting the six classes of goods (Sec. 1) in the same way as they had a thousand years before. Man still had to depend upon his own muscles, his beasts of burden, the wagon, the sail boat, the flatboat, the wind mill, and small waterwheels. They were all the help he had. Livingunder such con ditions, men could noteasily travel far from home, so there was not one white settlement north of the Gulf of Mexico until several generations after the discovery of America. For the same reason, almost all of the white people in America still lived east of the Appalachians for the first three hundred years after Columbus's time. Men had to live in places from which the farmer's wagon could take loads of wheat and pork down to some river such as the Mohawk, the Con necticut, the Susquehanna, or the James. There the produce could be put on a flatboat so that it might float over the riffles and low rapids down to the fall line, where sailing vessels waited to take the produce to Europe or the West Indies.

In that time the chief exports of North America were wheat, flour, pork, codfish, and a little lumber. The foreign trade was very small indeed, and the trade among the dif ferent parts of the country was even smaller. 393. The great inventions.—During the hundred years after George Washington's time many great inventions were made. In that century America saw its first steamboat, canal, railroad, telegraph, telephone, electric motor, gas I engine, and automobile. Many, many different kinds of machines gave man power to conquer nature. Most important of all was the general use of the steam engine to drive factory machinery.

394. The rush for new one invention after another gave new power, the white men, who had lingered for two hun dred years close to the Atlantic Ocean, be came more and more able to transport goods over mountains, rivers, lakes, and plains, and to make new homes where wilderness had been. Then, instead of living as Dave Douglas lives, they could send produce to market. When men could send much prod uce instead of having to go and take a little, they could live in distant places. Then the

rush for the west began. The heart of North America was settled with great speed. Ohio became a state in 1803; Iowa in 1846; Colorado in 1876; North Dakota in 1889; and the farmers are still settling the new prairie in western Canada. (Sec. 92.) 395. The new world of that man can ship almost anything anywhere, nearly all the people of North America live by producing a few things suited to their own region and sending them in trade to other regions. This is I.

motives never cease from chugging as they pull across mountain, plain, and river train loads of goods that keep alive the trade of our inland regions. On the rivers and lake big steamboats with clouds of black smoke pouring out of their stacks are. helping to carry the materials of trade. Ships are on every sea. They pass from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, through the great gates of the Panama Canal. Each day ocean steamers glide into the ports of our country, bringing the produce of other lands. If the people of the world would all work and treat each other fairly, present trade possibilities are such that every one might live very comfortably.

really a division of industries or a division of labor among the different regions. Each region tends more and more to produce the few things that it can best produce, and to buy from other regions in this or other countries the many, many things which other places can better produce.

396. The manufacturing areas and the raw material areas.—Since the great inven tions have been made we have built up in North America one large area where manufactures are more important than in the other parts of the continent, which produce raw material. This manufacturing area lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Missis sippi River, and between the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Potomac rivers.

397. Foreign trade.—North America has many regions, with all ranges of climate, from the tropic fields of cane and bananas to the tundra pastures on the Arctic shores. Yet we have need for many of the products of other lands. If you do not remember them, look up the places (Fig. 9) from which come silk, tea, coffee, wool, ivory, ostrich feathers, palm oil, fine wool cloth, and laces.

398. Thousands of we could see assembled in one place all the people who have helped in some way to make the things for sale in one little country store, we should see thousands of people. And other thou sands have helped in the transportation.

By day and by night, thousands of loco