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Trade and Government 52

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TRADE AND GOVERNMENT 52. Trading with the Eskimos.—Green land, a part of Eskimo land, is owned by Denmark, a country in Europe. Although the country is so cold and icy, the southern and western shores are not cov ered with ice, and a few Eskimos are able to live there. A Danish ship comes once a year to visit these people and trade with them.

There are no railroads from our country to Alaska, or to other arctic lands. The easiest way to reach them is to go by ship. (See Fig. 60.) At what city might you take a ship for Green land? for Alaska? How would you travel from your home to reach that city? Although some of the Eskimos have no trade with the people of other countries (Sec. 5), the Eskimos in northwestern Can ada trade with the white men who in the summer go down the Mackenzie river in steamboats. (Sec. 45.) It is the Central Eskimos, living north and northwest of Hudson Bay, who do not trade with the white men. The straits and bays around these shores and islands are so full of ice that ships cannot get through even in summer.

53. Trading with the Indians of the Great North Woods.—It is much easier to trade with the Indians of the Great North Woods than with the far-away Eskimos, for the southern edge of the Indian country joins the white man's country. Each year the Indians bring their furs to the white man's trading posts (see Sec. 8), and every summer the Mackenzie river lets boats run all the way through the Indian country to a corner of Eskimo land. (Fig. 60.) 54. Government by tribes.—The map shows that the most of the Eskimo land and the In dian land belongs to Eng land, but for hundreds and hundreds of miles there is not an Englishman to be seen. There is not a post office, nor a school, nor a policeman. The Eskimos and Indians govern them selves as they have always done. If several families live near each other, they elect their own chief, or head man, who rules over them. It is only on the southern edge of the In dian country and about the trading posts that the white man's policemen look after the Indians.

55. The white man's country and the white man's government.— South of the Indian coun try is a part of Canada that has a summer long enough and warm enough for men to grow good crops. This is the white man's

country. Here are farms, villages, and towns. One may see roads, railroads, tele phones, automobiles, schools, tax collectors, and policemen. There are written laws, and courts where men can settle their differences by talking things over rather than by fighting.

The governments of white men do many things to help everybody. The people themselves elect men to work for the government. The elected men attend to the building of roads and manage the post offices, the schools, and the courts. In this way, many helpful things can be done that a single family cannot do for itself. Many useful things can be produced only when a great many people work together. One Indian can make a sled, but more than a hundred men must work together In Mexico and Central America, some of the peo ple live as we do, but in some parts of those coun tries there are native In dians who still live in tribes governed by their chiefs, as do the Indians of the Great North Woods.

to make a locomotive. And it takes thousands of men to build a long railroad such as the Canadians have built across the southern part of their country from Halifax on the Atlantic to Vancouver- on the Pacific.

When people say that they are civilized, they usually mean that they have for their use or comfort those things that can be made or carried on only by many people working together—such as postoffices, schools, colleges, hospitals, courts, roads, railroads, and ships large enough to cross the sea. Name all the things you can think of in your neighborhood that would not be there unless many people worked together.

The United States is like southern Can ada, a country good for farms, towns, and railroads. In such a country, many people can live, and they learn to do things together. Railroads reach from one end of our country to the other. (See Fig. 133.) There are steamboats on our rivers, and telegrams can be sent to thousands of cities and small towns, and millions of people get mail every day.