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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Bridges
Bridges. Eassificatio;z.—the Term Bridge Is Applied To Certain Forms Of Construc Tion The Object Of Which Is To Connect Two Points Separated From Each Other By Water, A Roadway, Or A Ravine In Such A Manner That A Free Or Open Space Shall Be Left Beneath The New Avenue Of ...

Building
Building. The Subject That Will Occupy Our Attention In The Following Sectionsrelates Strictly To The Mechanical Operations Involved In Carrying Into Effect The Plans Of The Designer Or Architect; In Other Words, We Shall Concern Ourselves With The Strictly Practical Or Mechanical Parts Of Architecture, As Distinguished From Its Xsthetic ...

Buildings
Buildings. The Structures Which Man Erects Are Intended To Subserve One Of Two Purposes : They Are Either Shelters From The Weather Or They Are Defences Against His Foes ; The One Or The Other Character Prevailing To Such An Extent As To Decide On The Form, Material, And Location ...

Caloric Gas
Gas, Caloric, And Other Thermo-dynamic Motors. Gas Motors.—before The Invention Of The Steam-engine Papin Experi Mented With The Gases Of Gunpowder As A Motive Substance (see P. 244), And It Will Be Readily Understood That After The Invention Of The Applica Tion Of Steam The Employment Of Other Vapors Than ...

Canals
Canals. Navigable Canals Are Artificial Water-ways. They Are Distinguished From The Natural Water-ways By Having A Very Slight Fall, In Consequence Of Which The Water Has Only A Scarcely-perceptible Current; So That Boats Require To Be Propelled By Some Means In Both Directions, While In Natural Waters They Require Propulsion ...

Century Transition To The
Century: Transition To The Gothic. We Left The Development Of French Architecture In The Middle Of The Twelfth Century (p. 169). The Nave Of The Church At Vezelav Was Built About This Time. It Presents The Appearance Of A New Motif Ill France: It Has A Groin-vaulted Nave. It Shows ...

Chaldjean And Assyrian Sculpture
Chaldjean And Assyrian Sculpture. Until Recent Years The Monuments Of Chal&ea And Assyria Were Classed Together, As If They Formed The Continuous Development Of A Single National Art. Since The Discoveries Of De Sarzec At Tello In 1877 And 1881 The Chalthean Monuments Have Been Studied By Themselves, And An ...

Characteristics Of Special Mythologies
Characteristics Of Special Mythologies. Egyptian Religion Of Ancient Egypt Held A Middle Position Between That Of The Semitic And Aryan Nationalities. The Cen Tral Myth Was That Of Osiris, Or, As He Was Otherwise Called, Ra. The Story Told In Many Versions Was That He Was Slain, And That The ...

Chinese Architecture
Chinese Architecture. As The Consideration Of The Existing Art Of India—the Main Trunk Of The Art Of Eastern Asia—belongs To The Province Of Ethnography, So Does Also That Of The Chief Branch Of This Stem ; That Is, The Art Of China. Influence Of Buddhistic History Of China Goes Back ...

Church Worship Superstition
Church Worship-superstition. In This General Sketch Of Ecclesiastical Life We Shall Refrain From Treat Ing Of The Abstract Doctrines Of The Church Or Of The Development Of Its Dogmas. But It Is Necessary To A Just Understanding Of The Position Of The Ancient Church To Keep In View Its Fundamental ...

City And Suburban Railways
City And Suburban Railways (tramways), Horse-railways (called Tramways In England, And To Some Extent Else Where) Preceded Steam-railways In Point Of Time, But Since The Introduc Tion Of The Latter They Are Rarely Used For The Transport Of Merchandise, Their Employment For This Service Being Confined Principally To The Case ...

Civilization As The Resultant
Civilization As The Resultant Of Ethnic Development. Were We To Select Any One Of The Elements Of National Life Which We Have Been Considering—the Food-supply, The Sexual Relation, Government, Religion, Arts, Or Language—and Study In Detail The Part It Has Played In Raising Man From A Savage To A Cultured ...

Clothing
Clothing. Unlike All The Man-like Mammals, Man Himself Is Almost Devoid Of Any Protection In The Nature Of Hair Or Fur On His Body. To Explain This Has Been A Puzzle To Evolutionist Philosophers, And It Must Be Acknow Ledged That They Have Not Offered Any Satisfactory Solution. Whatever Its ...

Comparison Of Italian And
Comparison Of Italian And German Painting. On Plate 35, Executed By A Celebrated Engraver On Copper (h. Merz), The Reader Is Enabled To Note The Distinctive Peculiarities Of German And Italian Art Of The Time Of The Renaissance By Comparing Some Works Of That Period By Famous Masters Of Each ...

Construction
Construction. A Prime Consideration In The Selection Of Material Is The Manner In Which The Separate Pieces Can Be United And The Amount Of Strength Which Will Result From Their Union. Construction, Which Unites These Masses And By Their Union Encloses The Spaces, Is Essentially Dependent Upon These Qualities, And ...

Construction In Iron
Construction In Iron. Wrought Iron And Cast Iron Are Coming- More And More Into Use In Building Construction, Not Only As Accessory Materials For Making, Nails, Bolts, Etc., But Also For The Construction Of Independent Parts Of Building-s And Of Entire Edifices. At Present Attention Will Be Confined To The ...

Construction In Stone
Construction In Stone. Structures In Stone Appear Either In Massive Form As Masonry Or More Specifically As Stone Along With Framework And The Shell-like Form Known As Face-work. The Choice Of The Bnilding Material, Which May Be Either Natural Or Artificial Stone, Will Depend On The Nature Of The Service ...

Construction In Wood
Construction In Wood. This Branch Of The Work Will Be Devoted To The Construction Of Build Ings Intended For The More Common Uses, In Which The Chief Material Is Wood In The Form Of Beams, Boards, Laths, Etc. Timber Is Reduced To The Form Of The Beam Either By Hewing- ...

Costumes And Ornaments
Costumes And Ornaments. Unfortunately, We Must Refrain From Entering In Detail Into The History Of The Gradual Transition And Interesting Incidents By Which, Long After The Fall Of The Empire, The Roman Costume Became Predominant In The Regions North Of The Alps. We Mentioned Above (p. 235) The Special Event ...

Court And State Ceremonies
Court And State Ceremonies. Court Celebrations, Such As Coronations, Triumphal Processions, Acts Of Homage And Investiture, Funerals, Etc., Assumed In Time A Uniform Charac Ter With A Fixed Ceremonial In The Different European Countries, As Had Long Been The Case With The Festivals Of The Church. Upon All These Occa ...

Dams And Sluices
Dams And Sluices. Uses Of Dam Is A Solid Bank Or Barrier Built Across A Stream To Raise The Level Of The Water. Structures Of This Character Are Designed For Various Purposes; As, For Example, Where It Is Desired To Utilize The Water For Irrigation, Or Where It Is Desired ...

Decorative Designs In Line
Decorative Designs In Line And Color. Probably The First Canvas On Which Man Exercised His Taste For Decora Tion Was His Own Skin. To The Naked Savage, Painting His Face And Body Takes The Place Of Clothing, Both In Its Useful Aspect As A Protection Against The Weather And The ...

Development Of Modern English
Development Of Modern English Architecture. The Scope Of The Original Work, As Contained In The Preceding Pages, Having Precluded An Extended Account Of The Architecture Of England Sub Sequent To The Fifteenth Century, It Is Deemed Advisable To Introduce Some Additional Particulars Relative To Those Phases Which Have Succeeded The ...