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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Evolution Of Power
Evolution Of Power. Animal Organisms Or Mechanical Contrivances Which Appear As The Immediate Sources Of Mechanical Motion Arc Termed "prime Movers," Or, In Mechanical Nomenclature, " Motors." A Motor Is, Therefore, The Prime Means Of Mechanical Motion, Or, So To Speak, The Motive Tool. Among Animate Organisms Considered As Motors ...

Fifteenth Century French Gothic
French Gothic, Fifteenth Century. Church-architecture.—the Magnificent Churches Erected In France In The Thirteenth Century Were Concluded In Either The Fourteenth Or The Fifteenth, But Few Were Absolutely Finished. The Inspiration Of The Thir Teenth Century Had Passed Away, And The Belief That No Church Could Be Laid Out With Sufficient ...

Forms Of Marriage
Forms Of' Marriage. The Ceremonies Attendant On Wooing And Wedding Are Indicative Of The Position Of Woman In A Community And Of The Influence She Exerts Over National Life. Marriage Has Been Maintained By Some Writers That In Primitive Society Women Were, Rs A Rule, Stolen, And That What The ...

Foundations
Foundations. The Choice Of The Method To Be Employed In Laying A Foundation Depends Chiefly On The Nature Of The Ground, And The Distinction May Be Made Between Good Ground (such As Rock, Gravel, Sand, And Firm Clay), Medium Ground (such As Loam, Dry Peat, Light Clayey And Meadow Soils), ...

Frames
Frames. The An Outcome Of The Method Of Knitting By Hand, Was Invented In 1589 By The Rev. William Lee, A Native Of Woodborough, Near Nottingham, England, And A Graduate Of Cambridge. It Uses, As In Hand-knitting, Only One Thread To Produce A Flexible Fabric With An Extended Superficial Area. ...

French Architecture
French Architecture. France Is The Most Self-concentrated Of Nations, The Most Given To Self Admiration, And The Least Prone To Borrow Ideas From Others. There Is Nothing Startlingly Original, Nothing Strikingly Picturesque Or Overpower Ingly Grand, In Modern French Architecture: It Is But A Variety Of Renais Sance Founded In ...

French Painting In The
French Painting In The Eighteenth Century. The Degree Of Excellence Which The Fine Arts Had Reached In The Period Which Culminated In The Seventeenth Century Might Incline One To Conclude That The Following Century Was Of Little Moment In The His Tory Of The Arts. Such A Conclusion, However, Would ...

French Renaissance
French Renaissance. Italian Masters Were Summoned To The Court Of France As Early As The Reigns Of Charles Viii. (1483-1498) And Louis Xii. (1498-1515), But It Was Chiefly Francis I. (1515-1547) Who By His Zealous Advocacy Brought About A Reformation In Architecture And Won France Over To The Renais Sance. ...

French Sculpture In The
French Sculpture In The Eighteenth Century. Since The Death Of Michelangelo No School Of Sculpture In Europe Has Been More Important Than That Of France. It Is Well Known That French Sculpture In The Thirteenth Century—combined, Like Most True Sculpture, With Architecture—was Full Of Dignity And Beauty. Some Of The ...

French Sculpture In The
French Sculpture In The Nineteenth Century. One Of The More Remarkable Proofs That The Progress Of Art, However Varied In Its Manifestations, Is Based On Certain Laws Outside Of Human Con Trol Or Prevision, Is Shown By The Similar Tendencies Which Different Arts Exhibit At The Same Period. At The ...

From Natural Products
From Natural Products. The Earlier And The Ruder Tribes Have Always Contented Themselves With Such Food As The Vegetable And Animal World Supplied Them Ready To Their Hands. The Fruits Of The Forest And The Denizens Of The Streams And Woods Sufficed For Their Wants. Wherever This Condition Prevails It ...

Furniture And Utensils
Furniture And Utensils. In Early Times Household Furniture Was Much More Simple Than Would Be Inferred From The Writings Of The Romantic School. Two Articles Alone, The Heating Apparatus And The Bed, Received Particular Attention. Healing Learn From Various Excavations That The Romans Introduced Into Their Northern Provinces Their Method ...

Games And Festivals
Games And Festivals. The Summary Of The Arts Of Pleasure Is Expressed In The Phrase " To Play." It Is That Alone Which The Human Being Does Spontaneously And Willingly And Without Ulterior Motive. The Philosopher Bain, In Study Ing The Various Manifestations Of The Will In Man And Other ...

General Observations On American
General Observations On American Art. In Closing This Review Of The Later Art-products Of The Native Tribes Of The Western Hemisphere We May Profitably Take A General Survey Of Their Characters, Their Inspirations, And The Position They Occupy In The Develop Ment Of The Aesthetic Faculties Of The Species. It ...

General Remarks On Prehistoric
General Remarks On Prehistoric Art 1n Europe. Universality Of Outlines Of The Record Of Man's Exist Ence Before The Dawn Of History Which We Have Now Given Are Sufficient To Enable Us To Draw Certain Highly Important Conclusions As To His Early Character And Later Development. He Presents Himself To ...

Geographical Surroundings
Geographical Surroundings. Of Far More Obvious Influence On The Growth Of Civilization, Especially In Its Infancy, Are The Soil, The Climate, And The Other Physico-geographical Surroundings Of A Nation. These Are Most Promising When They Offer Conditions Favorable To Agriculture In A Well-watered And Fertile Plain Pro Tected From The ...

German Painting In The
German Painting In The Eighteenth Century. During The Early And Middle Periods Of The Practice Of Art In Germany The Great Distinctiveness That Marked The Individual Independence Of Each Kingdom, Principality, Dukedom, County, Or Free City Of Germany Gave Local Importance To Several Separate Schools Of Art. But When The ...

German Painting Of Tiie
German Painting Of Tiie Renaissance.. The Gothic Style Of German Painting Was Developed In Small Altar Pictures, As The Lack Of Wall-room In Gothic Churches Prevented The Use Of Monumental Fresco-painting. The Two Principal Schools Were At Cologne And Nuremberg. The Art Is Essentially Religious And Full Of A Gentle ...

German Renaissance
German Renaissance. In Germany No Court Was Powerful Enough To Introduce The New Style. Isolated Instances Were Not Wanting, But Its General Adoption Could Have Proceeded Only From The Heart Of The People, Who, However, Clung Tenaciously To Old Traditions, And Whose Peculiarities Had Found Definite Expression In The Late ...

German Romanesque Of Tiie
German Romanesque Of Tiie Eleventh Century. The End Of The World Was Expected In The Year 1000; Yet, As We Can See From The Great Architectural Undertakings Commenced Just Before, Enlightened Men Were Not Affected By This Fear. Yet The Superstition Of The Age Had Induced The General Belief That ...

German Romanesque Of The
German Romanesque Of The Tenth Century. In The Year 919, Henry I. Was Elected King Of Germany. When The Magyars Again Made Their Appearance, In 924, He Procured A Nine Years' Peace By Payment Of Tribute. He Had Need Of This Rest To Reinstate The Ruined Frontier Fortresses Erected By ...

German Sculpture In The
German Sculpture In The Nineteenth Century. As Indicated By The Career Of Tieck, The Line Between The German Sculpture Of The Eighteenth And That Of The Nineteenth Century Is Some What Nebulous; For Most Of The Notable Artists Who Aided In The Revival Of Sculpture In Germany Lived So Long ...

Gernian Sculpture In The
Gernian Sculpture In The Eighteenth Century. Time Was When Germany Had A Great And Absolutely Original School Of Sculpture, And, If Less Classical, Scarcely Less Instinct With Genius, Than That Of Greece. In The Cathedral Of Strasburg Is A Group Which Is Full Of Fine Feeling And Artistic Merit, Representing ...

Gesture Or Sign Language
Gesture- Or Sign-language. Much Of The Intercommunication Of Brutes Is By Gestures. The Dog Will Fawn To Show His Submissiveness, Jump And Spring Around His Master To Manifest His Joy, Catch And Pull The Clothing To Induce A Person To Go In A Certain Direction, And The Like. Certain Members ...

Gothic Sculpture
Gothic Sculpture. Sulyeas Of Cathedral Sat1phtres.—during The Gothic Period France Took The Lead In Sculpture As Well As In Architecture; The Innumerable Fig Ures That People Her Cathedrals Are More Wonderful Works Of Art Than Are Even The Famed 'sculptures Of The Pisan School In Italy. Connected With This Superiority ...

Government And Laws
Government And Laws. Development Of Government.—froin The Earliest Period In Which Men Lived Together In Communities They Must Have Had Some Recognition Of Each Other's Rights, Some Sort Of An Expressed Or Tacitly Understood "social Contract." 'what This Was At The Outset Has Attracted The Attention Of Anti Quaries And ...

Greek Architecture Period Of
Greek Architecture: Period Of Hellenic Independence. It Is Ideal Sentiment Only That Can Unite Peoples In Grand Undertakings And Give A Higher Direction To Architecture. This Ideal Sentiment Was Possessed In A Supreme Degree By The Hellenes. What The Genesis Of The Peculiar Development Of Greek Architecture Was, What Factors ...