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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Greek Painting
Greek Painting. The Essentially Plastic Character Of The Greek Mind Is Evident In Grecian Poetry From Heroic Days. With Concrete Images Clearly Before His Mind A Greek Produces A Strong Sense Of Reality In The Description Of The Most Ideal Scenes. Such A Characteristic Found Its Highest Expres Sion In ...

Greek Sculpture
Greek Sculpture. The Greeks In The Early Development Of Their Art Stood In Close Con Nection With The Orient. From Egypt And Assyria The Pluenicians Had Carried All Over The Mediterranean A Knowledge Of The Methods And Orna Mental Types Of The Great Civi:izations Of The East. In The Working ...

Hellenistic Period
Hellenistic Period. With The Extension Of The Greek Empire Under Alexander Results A Corresponding Change In Art, The Greek Genius Showing Less Of The Con Tinuous Development Upon Its Own Lines And Adapting Itself More And More To The Special Requirements Of Conquered Nations. The Great Ordered That No One ...

History Of Culture
History Of Culture In Its Broadest Sense Culture May Be Considered As Identical With Civilization, And As Thus Embracing All The Results Of Human Effort To Ameliorate The Condition Of The Race. It Is Substantially In This Sense That The Word Is Used In The Following "history," Which, However, Owing ...

History Of Railroads And
History Of Railroads And Locomotives. The Railroad—which, Thanks To The Application Of Steam As The Pro Pelling Power, Has Become Tile System By Which The Principal Part Of The Internal Traffic Of The Civilized Nations Of The World Is Carried On—has De Veloped To Its Present State From Ancient And ...

Hydraulic Engineering
Hydraulic Engineering. As The Earliest Works For The Protection Of The Land From Overflow By Water Grew Out Of The Necessity Of Guarding The Settlements And The Habi Tations Of Mankind From Destruction By Inundations, So The Necessity Of Supplying-vegetation With The Water Needful For Its Growth Gave Rise To ...

I Wind Wheels
I. Wind Wheels The Wind-wheel Was First Utilized As A Source Of Motive Power By The Germans During The Eleventh Century. The Oldest Form Of Was Doubtless That Of The " Post "-mill, In Which The Whole Structure Was Carried On A Post Set In The Ground And Rotated By ...

Inarticulate Speech
Inarticulate Speech. The Cries Of Animals And The Wails And Croonings Of Infants Are Exam Ples Of Inarticulate Speech. So Also Are Many Of The Interjections And Emotional Expressions Of Adult Men. The Vocal Sounds Produced In Ad Dressing Animals Are Generally Inarticulate ; That Is To Say, They Are ...

Indian Architecture
Indian Architecture. India—the Land Of Enchantment And Wonder, Lighted By The Clear 'southern Sky, Endowed With Magic Beauty, Embracing The Grandeur Of All Climes From Eternal Ice To Tropical Verdure, Possessed Of Stupendous Moun Tain-ranges, Of Majestic Forests, Of Mighty Rivers, Of Broad And Fertile Valleys, As Also Of Morass ...

Indian Sculpture
Indian Sculpture. The Earliest Known Examples Of Indian Sculpture—the Decorated Rails Surrounding The Topes At Buddh Gaya And Bharhut—date, According To Mr. Fergusson, From 250 To 200 I3.c. And Are Of A Purely National Character. General Of Animals, Especially The Elephant, The Deer, And The Monkey, Are Well Represented. During ...

Influence Of Physical Surroundings
Influence Of Physical Surroundings. Man Is Not Only The Most Highly Organized Of All Animals, But Also The Most Cosmopolitan Of All. So Wonderfully Adjusted Is His Structure That Lie Can Live And Thrive In A Range Of Two Hundred Degrees Of Temperature. Nothing Like This Can Be Said Of ...

Institutions Of Learning
Institutions Of Learning. The Intellectual Condition Of The Middle Ages Was Far Inferior To That Of Their Material Prosperity, Though The Latter Eventually Reacted Favorably Upon The Former. The Church Was The Only Educational Power. At First The Work Of Education Was Confined To The Monastery. We Have Already Seen ...

Interior Work Of Buildings
Interior Work Of Buildings. Has Heretofore Been Made To This Subject In Con Nection With The Discussion Of Proper Supports Of Floors, The Weight They' Should Be Able To Bear, And The Methods Adopted In Paris For Diminishing Fire-risks And Preventing Sound From Readily Passing From One Story To An ...

Isolated North Asiatic Peoples
Isolated North Asiatic Peoples. Classification.—although These Tribes, As We Have Already Seen, Share The Physical Peculiarities Of The Ural Japanese Stock, And Are Closely Related To It, It Will Be Better To Consider Them As An Independent Group Having No Closer Relationship Among Themselves Than With That Stock. The Peoples ...

Italian Gothic
Italian Gothic. Course Of Developnenf.—the Circumstances Under Which Architecture Developed In Italy From The Thirteenth To The Fifteenth Century Were Entirely Different From Those Of Northern Europe (and Even Of Spain, Where Northern Influences Predominated), And Northern Gothic Found Little Acceptance In Italy. That Architecture Here Had Different Tasks To ...

Italian Painting In The
Italian Painting In The Sixteenth Century. We Have Now Reached That Period In The History Of Italian Painting— The Early Part Of The Sixteenth Century—which Is Dominated By Those Three Men Of Genius Leonardo, Raphael, And Michelangelo, Who Tower So Pre-eminently Above Their Contemporaries. With Them The Art Of The ...

Italian Painting Of The
Italian Painting Of The Fifteenth Century. While During The Preceding Period Italy Alone Plays An Important Part In The Development Of Painting, Throughout The Centuries Of The Renaissance Germany And The Netherlands Take Rank Almost By Her Side, Though Without Producing Men Of Such Transcendent Genius. The Opening Years Of ...

Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance. When French Gothic Had Reached Its Highest Development; When Germany No Longer Borrowed, Altered, And Worked Single Elements Into Her Native Art, But Adopted The Foreign Forms In Their Entirety And Treated Them As Necessity Required,—then The Outward Form Ceased To Be Regarded As An Essential Practical Result ...

Italian Sculpture In The
Italian Sculpture In The Eighteenth Century. The Extraordinary School Of Sculpture Which Arose In Italy In The Renaissance Period, Illustrated By Such Artists Of Genius As Michelangelo, Verrocchio, Giovanni Da Bologna, And Cellini, Was Followed By An Era Of Declension So Marked That It Seemed Almost Hopeless To Expect Any ...

Iv Incorporative Languages
Iv. Incorporative Languages. Leading Word Is Either Divided And The Modify Ing Terms Inserted, Or They Are United To It As Prefixes And Suffixes, So That The Whole Sentence Assumes The Form And Sound Of One Word. Spoken By Most Of The American Tribes. Incorporation Is Regarded As A Characteristic ...

Language
Language On P. 52 The Different Stocks Of Languages Have Been Discussed When Considered As A Means Of Classifying The Varieties Of The Human Race. We Turn In The Present Section To Language In Its General Sense As A Motive Power In The Development Of Society, And Shall Consider The ...

Late Venetian And Bolognese
Late Venetian And Bolognese Schools. We Turn Now To The Master-colorists, The Venetians. Busied With Per Fecting The Exquisite Warm Tones Of Their Clear And Harmonious Coloring, The Members Of This School Set Less Value On Inventiveness In Composi Tion Or A Dramatic Treatment Of The Subject ; They Arranged ...

Laving Out A Railroad
Laving Out A Railroad. The Work Of Planning And Laying Out A Railroad Is Something More Than Merely Technical, Since The Question Of The Money That May Safely Be Ex Pended Upon It, And Consequently The Character Of Its Construction And Ope Ration, Must Be Determined By The Amount Of ...

Laws Of Constructive Art
Laws Of Constructive Art. The Character Or Distinctive Appearance Of A Building Depends Essen Tially Upon The Grouping Of Its Leading Masses. This Grouping Is Governed By The Same Law That Obtains In The Creations Of Nature, And That Gives To Each Individual Organs Of The Size And Shape Best ...

Laws Of Descent
Laws Of Descent. Afatriarchal System—with Rare Exceptions The White Race Have From The Earliest Historic Times Traced Relationship Principally Through The Father's Line. His Name Is Borne And Property Descends Through Him. Even Where, As In Spain, The Mother As Well As The Father Transmits Her Family Name To The ...

Lightning Conductors
Lightning Conductors. Lightning Conductors—first Proposed About The Middle Of The Last Cen Tury By The Philosopher Benjamin Franklin As A Protection Of Life And Of Buildings Against The Destructive Effects Of Lightning—perform, When Prop Erly Erected, A Double Office. In The First Place, By Silently Drawing Off The Accumulated Electricity ...

Limitations Of Marriage
Limitations Of Marriage. Prohibitions Of Various Prohibitions And Limitations Of Marriage Have Exercised A Marked Effect On The Condition And History Of Nations. There Is Probably Little Scientific Ground For Any Of These Restrictions. They Seem All To Have Arisen Either From Superstitious Fears Or From Political And Social Considerations. ...

Limits Of Variation In
Limits Of Variation In The Species. The Folk-lore Of All Nations Tells About Giants And Dwarfs, And Up To A Recent Date Sober Writers Were Willing To Accept Some Of These Tales As Founded On Fact. Now, However, It Is Well Ascertained That The Limits Of Variation In The Human ...

Loconeotivs
Loconeotivs. Locomotive, Considered As A Whole, May Be Defined As An "engine Running On Wheels," Or It May Be Treated As A Boiler Supply Ing Steam To An Engine For Driving A Propelling Mechanism. Ordinarily, The Term " Engine " Is Applied, Not Merely To The Cylinders, Valves, And Valve-operating ...