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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Loniiiard And Carlovingian Sculpture
Loniiiard And Carlovingian Sculpture. For Europe The Period Between The Sixth And The Eleventh Century Is Often Termed The " Dark Ages," And This Was Truly The Case For Sculp Ture, However Incorrect The Term May Be In Some Other Respects. The Lamp Of Culture Became Very Dim; Literature Was ...

Machines
Machines. To Increase The Beauty Of Their Appearance All Woven Fabrics Are Sub Jected To Certain Operations Collectively Known As " Finishing." Cotton Goods, However, Require Very Little Finishing To Be Made Ready For The Mar Ket. Damasks, Ginghams, Shirtings, Etc., After Leaving The Loom, Are Only Starched, Calendered, Measured, ...

Machines For Harvesting
Machines For Harvesting. The Scythe, The Sickle (p. 59, .fig. 4), And The Cradle (fig. 3), Imple Ments Everywhere In Use A Half-century Ago, Are No Longer Employed In Extensive Farm Operations. The Mowing-machine Has Taken The Place Of The Scythe, And The Reaping-machine Has Been Substituted For The Sickle ...

Machines For Planting And
Machines For Planting And Sowing. : Cahoon' S Broadcast Sower (pi. 57, Fig. 6) Consists Of A Small Hopper, Which Is Strapped To The Shoulders Of The Operator, And From Which The Seed Is Thrown By Turning A Crank, Which Causes A Rapid Rotary Motion Of The Seed-distributer And Throws ...

Machines For Preparing Cotton
Machines For Preparing Cotton For Spinning. It Is A Characteristic Feature Of Spinning By Machinery That The Process Does Not, As In Spinning By Hand, Proceed In One Operation From The Simple Fibres To The Perfected Thread, But That It First Produces A Strong Ribbon-like Semi-fabric, Technically Known As A ...

Machines For Thrashing And
Machines For Thrashing And Separating. The Powers In Common Use For Driving Thrashing-machines Are Steam Engines, Lever-powers, And Horse-tread Powers, Of Which The Latter Have Many Advantages Over All Others, As They May Be Easily Conveyed From One Place To Another, May Be Placed On The Barn Floor Where The ...

Machines For Tiie Measurement
Machines For Tiie Measurement Of Space. As No Precise Idea Can He Formed Of The Length Of A Line Except By Comparing It With Another Line Of Known Length, The Necessity Of Having Recourse For The Interchange Of Ideas To Some Definite Measure Of Distance Seems To Have Been Perceived ...

Machines For Tillage
Machines For Tillage. The Plough, Though In Use Thousands Of Years Ago, Is Still Universally Employed, And In Many Localities, As Among The Malaysians And Some African Tribes, It Yet Retains Its Primitive Simplicity. In The East It Has Always Been A Light And Inartificial Implement. It Was Known In ...

Machines For The Measurement
Machines For The Measurement Of Motion. Measurement Of For Measuring Power Of Any Kind —for Example, The Strength Of Men And Of Draught Animals, The Force Exerted Through Machinery, Etc.—are Called "dynamometers," Which May Be Divided Into Two General Classes: (1) Those For The Measurement Of Power Exerted By A ...

Materials Of Construction
Materials Of Construction. To Enclose, Cover, And Separate The Spaces, And To Give To The Structure Its Appropriate External Form, We Make Use Of The Masses Ivhich Are Com Posed Of The Building Materials. All Materials Have Special Properties, And In Their Choice Nature Is Again The Master's Infallible Guide. ...

Measurement Of Liquids And
Measurement Of Liquids And Gases. Appliances For Measuring Liquids May Be Divided Into Two Classes: (1) Those For Determining The Density Of Liquid Bodies, And (2) Those For Deter Mining Their Quantity. Such Appliances Are Called Mders. The Terms Meter, Register, Counter, And Indicator Are Frequently Used Interchange Ably, But ...

Measurement Of Solids
Measurement Of Solids. The Measurement Of Solids May Be Determined By Two Methods— Namely, (t) By Linear Measure And (2) By Gravity. As The Appliances For The First Method Of Measurement Consist For The Most Part Of Simple Instruments—for Example, The Foot-rule, Tape-line, Etc.—we Shall Confine The Following Treatment To ...

Mechanical Movements
Mechanical Movements. Mechanical Movements Constitute An Essential Part Of Transmitting Machinery; They May Be Called The Organs Of Transmission, And They Therefore Take Form In Accordance With The Direction Of The Intended Motion, And Are Proportioned To Meet The Demands Of The Forces Which They Are Devised To Transmit. They ...

Media Of Exchange
Media Of Exchange. The Advantage Which An Established Medium Of Exchange Has Proved To The Development Of Nations Has Been Fully Recognized By Those Who Have Given Their Attention To Historical Questions. Money, Using The Word In Its Widest Sense, Has Been Called By One Writer " The Instrument Of ...

Metal Working Tools
Metal-working Tools. All The Work Performed Upon Metals For The Purpose Of Fashioning Them Into Tools, Implements, And Appliances Of Various Kinds Is Effected Either By Cutting, Abrading (including Polishing), Or Bending, To Which Processes Those Of Stamping, Flanging, And Punching Arc Related In Various Degrees. All These Mechanical Operations, ...

Metals
Metals. The Tribes Of The Locality Of Which We Are Speaking Were Acquainted At The Epoch Of The Discovery With A Number Of Metals, But Not With The Proper Technical Reduction Of Any Of Them. Specimens Of Gold, Silver, Iron, And Copper Have Been Found In Both The Older Mound ...

Metals_2
Metals. The Metals Known To These Nations Were Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Tin, And The Alloy Bronze. They Were More Or Less Acquainted With The Reduction, Smelting, And Casting Of These, And Employed Them Both In The Arts Of Utility And In Those Of Pleasure (see Vol. I. Pp. 97, ...

Metals_3
Metals. Go/cf.—the Principal Metals Known To The Peruvians Were Gold, Silver, And Copper. Their Greatest Skill Was Displayed In The Manipulation Of Gold. This Was Obtained Principally By Washing The Sands Of The Moun Tain-streams. They Not Only Knew How To Hammer It Into Thin Plates, And To Weld These ...

Mexican Architecture
Mexican Architecture. The History Of Architecture In The New World, If Fully And Properly Treated, Is By No Means Confined To That Of The Structures Erected By The English-speaking Races Of The Continent. Long Before Anything Worthy The Name Of Architecture Existed In The United States The Proud And Wealthy ...

Mills
Mills. Of The Various Mechanical Processes By Which The Condition Of Natural Products Is Changed, That Of Pulverizing Is The Simplest; And The Earliest Human Contrivances Were Doubtless Of The Nature Of Mills For Crushing And Grinding Fruits And Seeds. The Term Mil/ Was Originally Restricted To Denote The Various ...

Mills With Crushing Action
Mills With Crushing Action. Primitive Mealing Implement Is Not Only The Earliest Known Grinding Device, But Is Also The Simplest Form Of A Ball-mill, Whose Action Is Chiefly Reciprocatory, Though Slightly Rotary. To Grind Gold-ore The Coreans Of To-day Spread It On A Level Bed Of Rock, And Over It ...

Mills With Grinding Action
Mills With Grinding Action. Conical 7 (pi. 7) Shows A Modification Of The Ancient Roman Mill: A Massive Conical Stone Revolves In A Hollow Cone, The Mate Rial To Be Comminuted Being Conveyed Through The Narrow Spaces Between The Two Surfaces Either By Gravitation Or By Centrifugal Force. A Is ...

Miscellaneous Agricultural Machines
Miscellaneous Agricultural Machines. Is Fodder Preserved In A Silo Or Pit Or In An Air-tight Structure Above Ground. The Process Is Analogous To That By Which Fruits, Meats, Vegetables, Etc., Are Preserved In Cans. In The United States In Isso There Were Only Six Silos And In England Only Four, ...

Modern Civilization
Modern Civilization. One Is Puzzled, In Considering That Distinctive Period Of The World's History Which Includes The Present Day, Whether To Assign It Three Centuries, Or One, Or Fifty Years. So Rapid Has Been Material Progress, Such An Impulse And Expansion Have Been Given To Intellectual Activity, So Sharply Drawn ...

Modern Private Buildings
Modern Private Buildings. Detached Houses: Dresa'en Erections Intended For Private Dwellings, The Most Marked Differences Occur Not Only From The Influences Of Climate And Nationality, But Also From The Circumstances And Taste Of The Individual Proprietor Or Tenant. The Differences Arising From National Peculiarities Are Less Strikingly Exhibited In The ...

Movable Bridges
Movable Bridges. By Reason Of The Insufficient Height Of A Bridge Structure Thrown Across A River Or Other Stream, Navig-ation Is Obstructed, Means Must Be Employed Whereby The Bridge May Be Opened To Permit The Passage Of Vessels. This Is Accomplished Through Various Mechanical Arti Fices By Whose Aid Either ...