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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Religions
Religions. We Have Already Adverted To The Intimate Connection Which Has Widely Existed Between The Religious Sentiment And The Growth Of Arts (above, P. 132) And Forms Of Government (p. 137). These Were But Subordinate Indi Cations Of Its All-embracing Activity In Moulding The Lines And Shaping The Destinies Of ...

River Engineering
River Engineering. Source Of The Atmospheric Precipitation Of Moisture In The Form Of Rain, Snow, Or Hail Are Due The Existence And Maintenance Of The Supplies Of Water -upon The Land. The Larger Portion Of The Precipipted Moisture Remains Upon The Surface, And, Collecting- Into Watercourses, Con Stitutes The Rivulets, ...

Road Bed
Road-bed. The Road-bed, Intervening Between The Foundation And The Superstruc Ture (cross-ties, Rails, Etc.), Effects The Distribution Of The Traffic Burden Over A Larger Surface Of The Road-foundation, Lessening Its Liability To Give Way Under The Weight. At The Same Time It Serves Effectually And Rapidly To Drain The Road-surface. ...

Road Crossings Drainage
Drainage, Road-crossings, Road-divisions, Etc. Drains.—to Lead Off The Watercourses That Intersect The Road, Suitable Provisions Must Be Made By Means Of Structures That Will Vary According, To The Size And Direction Of The Stream And The Nature Of The Available Building Material. Where The Amount Of Water To Be Carried ...

Roliyr Mills
Roliyr-mills. //in'oricai. —according To Rhvs Jenkins, The Earliest Record Of The Use Of Rolls For Crushing Corn, Etc., Is That Made By Samuel Hartlib In 165r. In T721, John Mortimer Invented A Roller-mill Which Consisted Of A Pair Of Iron Rolls, About 4 Inches In Diameter And From 18 To ...

Roman Architecture
Roman Architecture. The Greeks Recognized No Culture Besides Their Own ; All Other Races. Were Barbarians. As Such They Looked Upon The Macedonians, Notwith Standing Their Widely-extended Empire, And Though It Was Through Them That The World Was Opened To Greek Culture And Manifold New Forms Were Introduced Into Grecian ...

Roman Sculpture
Roman Sculpture. Roman Sculpture Drew Its Inspiration From Two Sources. On The One Hail I, It Is A Continuation Of The Practical Industrial Traditions Of The Primitive Inhabitants Of Italy; On The Other, It Reflects The More Ideal Pr.)ducts Of The Arts Of Greece. To The Etruscans May Be Traced ...

Roman And Pompeian Painting
Roman And Pompeian Painting. The Wall-paintings Which Have Been Discovered In Rome And Pompeii Furnish Us The Best Examples Of Greek And Roman Achievement With The Brush. The Advance Which Had Been Made In Roman Painting During The Hellenistic Period May Be Clearly Seen In The Painting From The Palatine ...

Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque Architecture. The Ancient Classic Culture Was In The Days Of The Carolingians Revived For The Last Time Before Its Final Extinction By The Gothic Races, Who Were Now Spread Over Western Europe, And Who Overwhelmed With Destruction All Those External Conditions Under Which Alone A Great Civ Ilization Can ...

Roof Coverings
Roof Coverings. Roofing Treating- Of The Ang,le Of Inclination Of Roofs (p. 48), It Was Mentioned That This Depended Chiefly Upon The Roofing Matcrial. The Angle Varies Very Much According To The Material And The Shapes Of The Individual Parts, Or Is Applied Differently Even \viten Material And Shape Are ...

Roof Gutters And Waste Pipes
Roof Gutters And Waste-pipes. Roof Guilers And Conductors, Or Waste-pipes, Were Formerly Constructed Of Lead, Copper, Or Tin, But Recently Tinned Or Galvanized Iron Or Zinc Has Been Almost Exclusively Employed. Gutters May Be Arranged In Various Ways, But Care Should Always Be Observed That They Have A Fall Of ...

Royal Insignia
Royal Insignia. Plate 49, Copied From The Exhaustive Work Of Fr. Bock, Represents A German Emperor In Full Costume (jig. 1), The Several Parts Of The Corona Tion Robes, And Several Crowns Belonging To Different Kingdoms. Imperial Ancient Ritual Of The Coronation Ceremony Desig Nated Several Pauses In The Church ...

Russian Architecture
Russian Architecture. The Slavic Races Are Late To Appear In History, And Among Them The Russian Alone Developed A Completely Independent, Really National Style. While Some Slavic Nationalities Followed Byzantine Culture Until They Were Crushed Under Turkish Rule, Their Style Thus Becoming But A Remnant Of The Byzantine, Others, As ...

Saracenic Architecture
Saracenic Architecture. As The Patriarchs Of The Old Testament Had Led Nomadic Lives Long After Other Peoples Had Become Settled, So The Arabians, Who Traced Their Descent From These Patriarchs, Continued Their Wandering Lives Nearly Two Thousand Years Later—not Without Culture, But With One The Direction Of Which Precluded The ...

Saws
Saws. Saw, Which Is An Ancient, Useful, And Familiar Tool, Has A History Of Its Own. When We Speak Of A Saw, We Generally Mean A Tool For Dividing Wood, Although The Saw Is Used For Other Solid Materials, And, Moreover, Has Other Uses Than Mere Dividing. Thousands Of Years ...

Scents And Flavors
Scents And Flavors. A Passion For Strong Odors Is Frequently Observed Among Savage Tribes. Members Of The African Race Especially Have This Taste Developed, And =ploy Various Vegetable Preparations To Anoint And Perfume Themselves. The Ancient Mexicans, According To The Historian Sahagun, Collected Large Numbers Of Sweet-scented Flowers And Aromatic ...

Sculpture Roma Nesquf
Roma Nesquf, Sculpture. The Low Condition Of Sculpture During The Centuries Following The Age Of Justinian (sixth Century) Was Somewhat Improved During The Period Following The Year T000. There Was At Least A First Attempt To Make It Again A Monumental Art When This Revival Of The Romanesque' Period Took ...

Sculpture And Modelling
Sculpture And Modelling. The Earliest Indications Of The Imitative Art Of The Sculptor Come Down To Us From The "reindeer Period " Of Western Europe. They Are Repre Sentations Of This And Other Animals Rudely Chiselled From Pieces Of Its Horns. Probably The Oldest Of All Known Human Figures Is ...

Sculpture And Painting
Sculpture And Painting. A New Significance Has Been Given To The Study Of Art Since The Introduction Of The Historic Method Of Investigation. This Method Requires That The Subject Be Treated Objectively And That The Various Arts Be Considered In Their Historic Development. Thus We Obtain A Connected Account Of ...

Sculpture In America
Sculpture In America. Of Sculpture By American Artists There Has Been An Abundance, But It Has Been Almost Entirely Produced Within The Last Fifty Years, And The Quantity Has Been Far In Excess Of The Quality. Previous To This Century What Few Attempts Were Made In This Department Were Confined ...

Seventeenth Century
Seventeenth Century. In The Middle Ages And During The Renaissance Art Dealt Especially With The Religions And Historic Ideals Of Mankind. It Took Subjects From The Old And The New Testament In Which To Mirror The Life Of The Present, And Conversely It Made The Scenes Of Ancient And Sacred ...

Sewing Machines
Sewing Machines. The Idea Of Mechanical Sewing Was Originally Conceived In England, Though The First Practical Sewing-machine Was Undoubtedly Produced In America. Saint's 179o, Thomas Saint, An English Cabinet Maker, Was Granted A Patent For " An Entire New Method Of Making And Completing Shoes, Boots, Spatter-dashes, Etc.," And, Though ...

Shell
Shell. The Various Univalve And Bivalve Shells Of The Rivers And Ocean Fur Nishcd A Material Of High Value To Primitive Man, And One That He Applied To A Variety Of Uses. How Its Natural Condition A Shell Served Him Admi Rably As A Drinking-cup, Spoon, And Dish; Its Sharp ...

Signals
Signals. Signals Are Used To Indicate To The Station-officials And Others On Duty What Is Taking Place On The Road, That They May Be Able To Communicate To The Engine-drivers, By Means Of The Code, Such Information And Instruc Tions As May Be Necessary To Insure The Safety Of Trains, ...

Social Life And Amusenients
Social Life And Amusenients. The Question Whether The Teutonic Character—that Is, The Prehistoric Ethical Capacity Of The Nation—would Alone Have Sufficed To Attain That Degree Of Culture Which It Developed In Later Times Is Wholly Irrelevant. This Problem Was Never Actually Presented For Solution, And We Are Deal Ing Only ...