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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Social Position Of Woman
Social Position Of Woman. The Position Of Woman As The Representative Of The Clan, And As The Only Parent Through Whom Kinship Is Traced, Necessarily Confers Upon Her Prerogatives Which She Would Not Otherwise Enjoy. Property Rights Become Vested In Her, And The Possessions Acquired By Her Husband Are More ...

South Adierican Architecture
South Adierican Architecture. After What Has Been Said About The Churches Of Mexico, Little Need Be Added Respecting Those Of South America, Which Are Similar In Their General Style, But On The Whole Inferior. Rio Janeiro Has A Great Profusion Of Churches, Mostly In The "jesuit" Style, And Many Of ...

Southern And Northern Chiaroscuro
Southern And Northern Chiaroscuro Compared. Two Great Artists, Correggio And Rembrandt, May Be Regarded As The Musicians Among Painters. The Forte Of Each Lies In Investing A Mental State With Sensuous Form And Expression, But The Sentiment Of The Italian Is Emotional And Intense; That Of The Dutchman, Strong And ...

Spanish Gothic
Spanish Gothic. The Iberian Peninsula, Which Borrowed The Romanesque Style Will Ingly From France, Afterward Took With Equal Alacrity The Gothic Also From Its Neighbor. Burgos Cathedral, Commenced In 1221, Has A Choir Laid Out In The French Manner With An Aisle And Five Chapels. The Ca Thedral Of Toledo, ...

Spanish Renaissance
Spanish Renaissance. Spain Was The First Country Into Which The New Style Penetrated. En Rique De Egas Built In 14so The College Of Sta. Cruz At Valladolid, And In The Same City, In I4ss, There Followed The Colegio S. Gregorio, Which Is Particularly Charming From The Richness Of Its Detail. ...

Spanish Romanesque
Spanish Romanesque. So Far As The Spanish Peninsula Was Not Subject To The Influence Of The Moors—either To Their Direct Rule, Or, After Their Overthrow, To Their Architectonic Traditions—it Was Subject To The Spirit Of The French. In Some Cases French Architects Supervised Spanish Works. Thus The Walls Of Avila ...

Special Appliances
Special Appliances. Typewriling First Patent For A Typewriting Machine Was Obtained In 174 By Henry Mill Of England. The Apparatus Is Not Described, Except That It Was A Device To Write In Printed Characters One Letter At A Time, One After Another. After The Lapse Of More Than One Hun ...

Special Railway Systems
Special Railway Systems. The Day Of The Locomotive, Inclined Planes Operated By Cables Or Bands Were Nsed For Raising Or Lowering Loaded Wagons Npon Steep Inclines. When The Load Was To Be Lowered, It Was Sufficient That It Should Have Enough Overweight To Raise The Empty Wagons Up The Slope ...

Stage The Commercial
The Commercial, Stage. From Some Of The Above Examples It Will Be Seen That Agricultural Nations May Linger A Long While In This Stage, Deriving Their Sustenance From Field Crops, Yet Making Little Headway Beyond The Satisfaction Of Their Immediate Needs. This Was Long Ago Observed By The Historian Thucydidcs, ...

Stations
Stations. To Afford The Necessary Facilities For The Rapid And Convenient Reception And Discharge Of Goods And Passengers, As Well As To Provide For The Neces Sary Renewal Or Increase Of The Motive-power Required To 1110ve The Trains, Stations Are Established. They Serve, Further, As Convenient Foci For The Distribution ...

Statues Oe The Gods
Statues Oe The Gods. The Earliest Worship Of The Greeks Was Connected With Natural Objects And Sacred Places, And Not With Sculptural Forms. Thus, We Find The Oak, The Willow, The Olive, And The Laurel Associated, Respectively, With The Wor Ship Of Zeus, Hera, Athena, And Artemis. Through The Waving ...

Steam Boilers
Steam Boilers. A Steam-boiler Is A Mechanical Arrangement In Which Heat, Evolved By The Combustion Of Fuel, Is Absorbed By A Liquid (generally Water), Whose Tension Is Thereby Increased. When Used In Connection With A Steam Engine, The Water Is Converted Into Steam, Whose Tension Is Used To Pro Duce ...

Steam Engine
Steam Engine Use Of Fire For Forging Metals, Heating Water, Making Bread And The Like Was Known At A Very Early Day In History (gen. Iv. 22; Xviii. 6), But We Have No Knowledge As To The Time When This Serviceable Element Was Discovered. " Probably It Was One Of ...

Stimulants And Narcotics
Stimulants And Narcotics. The Mere Gratification Of Their Physical Wants By Food And Drink Has Never Satisfied The Appetites Of Men. They Have Unceasingly Sought Some Substance Which Would Act More Directly On The Nervous System, Exciting Its Sensory Powers Or Modifying The Brain Action ; And In Spite Of ...

Stone Bridges
Stone Bridges. Ancient Bridges: First Stone Bridges Were Doubtless Stone Slabs Spanning Small Spaces. In Egypt The Annual Overflow Of The Nile Was A Hindrance To Bridge-construction, And No Relics Of Ancient Bridges There Exist. That The Egyptians Were Acquainted With The Arch, However, Is Demonstrated By The Finding Of ...

Storage Water Its Purification
Water: Its Purification, Storage, And Distrii;ution. Quality Of The Quality Of Water For Town And City Supplies, The Following Conditions Are Prerequisite: It Should Be Transpar Ent, Inodorons, Cool, And Soft; It Should Contain But Little Dissolved Solid Matter, And Should Be Free From Organic Substances. Chlorine And Nitro Gen ...

Structural Details
Structural Details. The Material Cannot Of Course Remain In Its Original Form, But Must Be Worked And Reduced To Shape. As The Masses Of The Edifice Enclose Space, So Is The Edifice Itself Bounded By Infinite Space, And The Boun Daries Which Result From This Enclosure Define The Outlines Of ...

Supports For The Rails
Supports For The Rails. The Rails Are Supported Upon Transverse Sleepers, Or Cross-ties, Of Tim Ber. On Some Roads The Sleepers Are Of Iron Or Steel, Inore Rarely Of Stone. Track Systems Have Been Tried Recently, In Which Such Methods Of Support Are Entirely Dispensed With. Cross-tics Are Usually 9 ...

T Ur Hines
T Ur Hines. While The Use Of The Water-wheel, Whose Inventor Is Unknown, Can Be Traced Back To A Period Before The Christian Era, The Turbine, Though For Several Centuries Known And Employed In Sonic Imperfect Form Of Construc Tion, Belongs To The Present Century. Its Development, Which Was Based ...

Tans Of Transportation
Tans Of Transportation. Man Surpasses All Other Land Animals In The Perfection Of His Natural Means Of Locomotion. Though Many Surpass Him For Short Distances In Speed, They Are Sure To Yield In Endurance. He Can Walk Clown The Deer And Wear Out The Horse, As Has Been Repeatedly Shown ...

Telegraphs And Telephones
Telegraphs And Telephones. Classes Of Telegralhie Systems. —the Transmission Of Intelligence Tele Graphically May Be Accotnplished Either By Means Of Optical Or Acoustical Signals Direct From Station To Station; Or Some Other Counnunicating Media, Such As Air- Or Water-columns, Electric Conductors Of Wire, Etc., Are Indi Rectly Used To Produce ...

Tenth To Twelfth Century
Italian Romanesque, Tenth To Twelfth Century. The Political Relations Of Italy Were Such That Its Art Diverged In More Directions Than Did That Of Germany. In Describing Byzantine And "aloorish Art We Have Noticed That Both Held Sway In The Territories Of The Eastern Roman Empire Until The Twelfth Century, ...