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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Alexander Polyhistor
Alexander Pol'yhis'tor (gk. Iio2v(c Top, Polyhisigr, Very Learned). A Fatuous His Torian Of The First Century B.c., Who Was A Native Of Cottyacum, In Phrygia, But Was Edu Cated At Miletns. In Sulfa's War Against Stith Ridates Lie Was Taken Captive And Brought To Rome, Where Cornelius Lentulus Gave Him ...

Alexander Tiie Great Bc
Alexander Tiie Great (b.c. 356-323). King Of Macedonia And Conqueror Of The Eastern World, Son Of Philip 11. Of Macedon And Of Olym Pias, An Epirot Princess. At Alexander's Birth, His Father Had Already Established His Position As King Of Macedonia, Had Made Great Progress In Developing His Army, And ...

Alexander Of Hales
Alexander Of Hales, Iffilz (lat. Ileavvuler Ilalensis) (1-1245). A Eng Lish Theologian, Known As "the Irrefragable Doe Tor.v Lie Was Born In Hales, Gloucestershire, Bit Had Attended The Schools Of Paris, Had Taken The Degree Of Doctor, And Had Become A Noted Profess Or Of Philosophy And Theology There, When ...

Alexandria
Al'exan'dria (ar. Is•anderich). A City Founded By Alexander The Great, In The Win Ter Of 332 B.c., On The Site Of An Egyptian Town. P,hacotis (map: Africa, G I). It. Was Situated At The Canopic Mouth Of The Nile, On The Low Ridge Separating Lake Mareotis From The Mediterranean, And ...

Alexandria_2
Alexandria. A City And Port Of Entry In Alexandria County, Va., On The Potomac River, About Six Miles Below Washington, And On The Southern, The. Pennsylvania, The Baltimore And Ohio, And The Chesapeake And Ohio Rail Roads (map: Virginia, G 3). Alexandria Is 100 Miles From The Month Of The ...

Alexandrian Age
Al'exan'drian Age. Loss Of Political Liberty In Greece Under Macedonian Domination, Creative Power Declined Also, And Athens Ceased To Occupy The Preeminent Position In Literature Which She Had So Long Held. During The Third Century D.c.. Alexandria Became The Cen Tre Of Science And Literature Under The Direction Of The ...

Alexandrian Library
Alexandrian Li'brary. The Plan For This, The Most Famous Collection Of The Ancient World, Seems To Have Been Formed By Ptolemy L. Soter (died 283 N.e.), Perhaps At The Suggestion Of The Athenian, Demetrius Of Phalerum. The Development Of This Plan And The Connection Of The Library With The Museum ...

Alexandrovitcii 1s45 94 Alexander
Alexander Iii., Alexandrovitcii (1s45 94). Emperor Of Russia From 1881 To 1894. He Was Born March 10. 1845, And He Succeeded His Father, March 13, 1881, But Was Not Crowned Un Til May 27, 1553, After The Panic Caused By The Assassination Of Alexander Il Had Somewhat Subsided. Alexander At ...

Alexawdrists
Al'exawdrists. Those Renaissance Fol Lowers Of Aristotle Who Attached Themselves With Much Zeal To The Interpretation Of Aris Totle Given By Alexander Of Aphrodisias. They Stood In Bitter Rivalry With The Averroists And The Thomists. The Dispute Concerned It Self Chiefly With The Relation Between The Individual Soul And The ...

Alfalfa
Alfalfa (sp.. From Ar. Al-faefaeah, The Best Feed), Also Callea Lucerne. A Legumi Nous Plant. Widely Used In Europe And In Parts Of North And South America As A Forage And Hay Crop For Stock. The Plant (medieago Satira) Is A Native Of The Valleys Of Central Western Asia. It ...

Alfonso I Of Castile
Alfon'so I. Of Castile And Vi. Of Leon, "the Valiant" (1030-1109). Fie Was The Son Of Ferdinand The Great, King Of Castile And Leon. Leon Was Given To Him By His Father; Sancho, The Eldest Son, Received Castile; Garcia, Youngest Of The Three, A Part Of Galicia And Portugal. Al ...

Algebra
Algebra. A Branch Of Pure Mathematic That Materially Simplifies The Solution Of Arith Metical Problems, Especially Through The Use Of Equations. It Also Forms The Introduction To All Of The Higher Branches Of Mathematical Science, Except Pure Geometry. The Lame Is Derived From The Title Of The Arabic Work By ...

Algie
Algie, Apj'e (lat. Nom. Pl. Of Alga, Seaweed). A Group Of Chlorophyll-bearing Or Colored Tballo Phytes Containing The Lowest Forms Of Plant Life. The Alg:c Are Contrasted With The Fungi, Which Latter Are Devoid Of Chlorophyll. There Is An Obvious Relationship Between The Algae And The Fungi (q.v.). The Latter ...

Algiers
Algiers, Hl-jere (ar. A L-jaza'ir, The Islands, Referring To An Island In Its Bay; Fr. Alger, Arzlth!, Formerly Fil'zhtle). The Capital And Chief Seaport Of Algeria, Situated On The West Shore Of The Bay Of Algiers, In Lat. 36° 47' N., And Long. 3° 3' E. (map: Africa, E 1). ...

Algonquian Stock
Algon'quian Stock. The Most Widely Extended And Most Important Indian Linguistic Stock Of North America, Formerly Occupying Nearly The Whole Area (with The Exception Of That Occupied By The Iroquoian Tribes) Stretching From Labrador To The Rocky Mountains In The North, And Extending Southward To Pamlico Sound On The Coast, ...

Alhambra Al
Alham'bra (al Al, The + Llantra, Red). The Fortified Palaee Citadel Of The Moorish Kings Of Granada. As Early As The Ninth Century A Citadel Was Located Here With The Name Al-hamra, Which Was Rebuilt When Granada Became The Cap Ital Of What Was Left Of The Moorish Dominions In ...

Ali Pasha
Ali Pasha, Ii'le ( 1741-1822). An Albanian Ruler, Notorious For Cruelty, And Known As "the Lion Ofjanina." He Was Born At Tepeleni, In The Albanian Province Of Janina. His Father, One Of The Albanian Beys, Died In Ali's Boyhood, And The Rearing Of The Child Was Thus Left To His ...

Alien
Alien (lat, Alicnus, Strange, Foreign). One Recognized By The State In Which He Sojourns As Owing Primary Allegiance To A Foreign Sovereign. It Is Used Ordinarily In Contradistinction To Cit Izen (q.v.). An Alien May Become A Citizen By Naturalization (q.v.). Alien Friend And Alien Enemy Denote, Respectively, An Alien ...

Alien And Sedition Acts
Alien And Sedition Acts. A Series Of Statutes Enacted During The Administration Of John Adams (q.v.), Occasioned Largely By The Desire Of The Party In Power To Stifle The More Virulent Forms Of Political Opposition Then Preva Lent, And To Check The Aetivities Of Those Who Sympathized With France. There ...

Alienation
Al'iena'tion (lat. Alienatio, The Trans Ferring Of The Possession Of A Thing To Another, From Alien Us, Another's, Foreign). A Legal Term To Describe The Transfer Of Title To Land, Or Of Any Interest Therein. The Modes In Which Alienation Is Effected Are Numerous, Ranging In Our Legal System From ...

Alimentary System
Al'imen'tary Sys'tem (from Lat. All Mentum, Food). In Mammalia, That Portion Of The Digestive Apparatus Through Which The Food Passes From The Time Of Its Entrance Until Its Exit From The Body. It Is Lined By A Mucous Membrane, Which Extends From The Lips To The Being Modified In Each ...

Alimony
Alimony ( Lat. Alinwnia, Alimonium, Nour Ishment, Sustenance, From Aloe, To Feed, Nour Ish). In English And American Law, The Allow Ance Which A Married Woman Is Entitled To Re Ceive Out Of Her Husband's Estate By Decree Or Or Der Of The Court On Judicial Separation Or Divorce A ...

Alizarin
Aliz'arin ( Probably From Ar. Al, The 'actrali, Juice Extracted From A Plant), Times Called Madder Extract. An Exceedingly Valuable Coloring Matter. With The Oxides Of Aluminium, Iron. And Most Other Metals, It Gives A Series Of Beautifully Colored Insoluble Salts Or Lakes. It Was First Obtained From Madder (the ...

Alkali Soils
Alkali Soils. A Term Applied To Soils Occurring In Regions Of Deficient Or Irregular Rainfall, Which Contain Unusually Large Amounts Of Soluble Salts Concentrated In Or Near The Sur Face. Tinder Certain Conditions Of Moisture These Salts Appear On The Surface Of The Soil In The Form Of A Crust ...

Alkaloids
Al'kaloids ( Literally, Resembling Alkali). A Term Applied To All Nitrogenous Basic Com Pounds. Found In Plants. The Alkaloids Are As A Rule The Most Important Medicinal Principles Of The Plants From Which They Are Derived, And In Moderate (loses Constitute Therapeutic Agents Of The Highest Value. In Larger Quantities, ...

Alkanet
Al'kanet (dim. Of Sp. Alrana, From Ar. Al, The Hinna), Anrhusa. A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Boragi Nacere. The Species Are Herbaceous Plants, Rough With Stiff Hairs, And Having Lanceolate Or Ovate Leaves, And Spike-like, Braeteated, Lateral, And Ter Minal Racemes Of Flowers, Which Very Much ...

Allahabad
Allahabad (ar...414th, God Hind. Abed, City, Dwelling). The Seat Of The Government Of The North-west Provinces Of British India (map: India, 1) :3). It Occupies The Fork Of The Ganges And Duinna Which Forms The Lowest Extremity Of The Extensive Region Distinguished As The Float), Or The Country Of Two ...

Allan
Allan, Sir William ( 1782-1850 ) . A Scotch Painter. He Was Born In Edinburgh, And Studied Art In The Trustees' Academy There, And In The Schools Of The Royal Academy, London. In 1805 He Went To Saint Petersburg, And Spent Several Years In Various Parts Of Russia And Turkey, ...

Allegheny
Allegheny. An Important Manufactur Ing City, In Allegheny Co., Pa., On The North Bank Of The Allegheny And Ohio Rivers, Opposite Pitts Burg (map: Pennsylvania, A 3). The Allegheny River Is Crossed By Several Large Bridges, Afford Ing Ample Facilities For Communication Between The Two Cities, Which Form One Industrial ...

Allegiance
Allegiance (lat. Ad. To + 0. F. And Engl Liege, But The Formation Was Influenced By Lat. Alliqare, To Bind To, And Also By Lex, Law). "allegiance," Says Blackstone, "is The Tie. Or Ligamen, Which Binds The Subject To The Sovereign, In Return For That Protection Which The Sovereign Affords ...

Allegory
Allegory (gk. Allc'goria, Speak Ing Otherwise, Allegory, From (ixaoe, Altos, Other Ayapet)em, Agoreuein, To Speak). The Allegory As A Literary Manner Is A Narrative In Which The Incidents And The Characters Really Refer To A Complete And Logical Scheme Of Underlying Thought. To Be Successful, The Narrative Must Be Not ...

Alleyn
Alleyn, Allen, Edward (1566-1626). An English Actor, Theatre Manager, And The Founder Of Dulwich College. Born In The Parish Of St. Botolph, Just Out Of London, He Went Upon The Stage Shortly Before Shakespeare Came From Stratford. Alleyn Won Rapid Success, Especially In Tragedy, Playing Among Other Roles The Jew ...

Alliance Israelite Universelle
Alliance Israelite Universelle, Firviinsf N'ne'var'siil'. An Association Founded At Paris In 1860 For The Amelioration Of The Condition Of The Jews Throughout The World. The Original Members Of The Society Were Jews, And By Far The Largest Number Of Its Members At Present Belong To That Faith: But The Associa ...

Alligator
Alligator (sp. El Lagarto, The Lizard, Lat. Lacertus, Lizard). A Genus Of Reptiles Of The Family Crocodilidte. True Alligators Differ From Crocodiles In The Following Respects: The Feet Are Less Webbed, The Head Is Shorter And Flatter, The Long First And Fourth Teeth Of The Under Jaw Fit Into Pits ...

Allipvion
Allipvion (lat. Allurio, A Washing Upon, From Ad, To + Lucre, To Wash). The Legal Term For Land Gained From The Sea Or Other Waters, Public Or Private, By The Imperceptible Relic Tion Of The Water Boundary Or The Gradual Wash Ing Up Of Silt And Earth, The Scientific And ...

Alliteration
Allit'era'tion (lat. Ad, To Littera, Letter). The Frequent Occurrence Of The Same Or Similar Letters Or Sounds. In Old German, Anglo-saxon, And Scandinavian Poetry, Allitera Tion Took The Place Of Rhyme. This Kind Of Verse, In Its Strict Form, Required That Two Stressed Syl Lables In The First Hemistich And ...

Allium
Al'lium (lat., Garlic). A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Liliacew Containing About 250 Species Of Perennial—more Rarely Biennial— Herbaceous Plants, With More Or Less Decidedly Bulbous Roots, Natives Chiefly Of The Temperate And Colder Regions Of The Northern Hemisphere. The Flowers Are Umbellate, With The Umbel Often Bearing ...

Allotropy
Allotropy (feel. Gk. A2.rrporia, Alto Fropia, Variety, From T27,2.oc, Altos, Other ±rporroc, Tropos, Turn, Way, Guise), Or Allotropism. A Term Used In Chemistry To Denote The Exist 1•11cc Of An Element In Several Forms Differ Ing From Each Other In Their Physical Proper Ties. By The Silent Discharge Of Electricity ...

Alloy
Alloy' ( Fr. Aloi, From Lat. Alligare. To Bind To, From Ad, To + Ligare, To Tie). A Mixture Of Two Or More Metals, Usually Produced Artificially By Fusion, Although Sometimes Found Native. Al Loys Are Characterized By Certain Definite Prop Erties, Which, According To Sir William C. Rob Erts-austen, ...

Almanac
Al'manac (of Disputed Origin). A Book Or Table Containing A Calendar Of The Civil Divi Sions Of The Year, The Times Of The Various Astro Nomical Phenomena, And Other Useful Or Enter Taining Information. Till A Comparatively Mod Ern Date, This Additional Matter Consisted Of Astrological Predictions And Other Analogous ...

Almeida Garrett
Almeida - Garrett, Al-mfi'e-da-giir-retf, Jo- 10 Baptista De Silva Bmx°, Viscount D' (1709-1854). A Distinguished Portuguese States Man And Author, Leader Of The Romantic Move Ment In His Country, And Its Most Important Poet Of The Nineteenth Century. Ile Was Born At Oporto And Died At Lisbon. After A Boyhood ...

Almond
Almond, Irinfind (lat. Amygdala, Gk. Aptly Daa, Amygdald), Amygdalus. A Genus Of The Natural Order Rosacete, Consisting Of Trees And Shrubs. The Almond Tree (amygdalus Corn Munis) Grows From Twenty To Thirty Feet High, Closely Resembles The Peach In General Appear Ance And Bloom, And Furnishes The Almond Nuts Of ...

Almqvist
Almqvist, Illm'kvist, Karl Jonas Ludwig (17')3-1866). A Swedish Writer Of Unusual Versa Tility But Very Unstable Genius. He Was Born At Stockholm. At Twenty, He Left A Good Post In The Civil Service And Founded A Sort Of Brook Farm In The Forests Of Vermland, Where The Lived Under Turf, ...

Aloes
Aloes, Iinz. A Drug Of Great Antiquity, For We Find Dioscorides, A Writer On Materia Medica Of The First Or Second Century, Making Mention Of Aloe As A Substance Obtained From A Plant And Possessing Cathartic Properties. It Is Obtained From Numerous Sources, Including Bombay. Ara Bia. Socotra. Madagascar, The ...

Aloes Wood
Aloes Wood, Also Agila Woos, Eagle Woon, Or Agallochum. The Inner Part Of The Trunk Of Aquilaria Ovata And .aquilaria Agallo Cha, Trees Native Of The Tropical Parts Of Asia, And Supposed To Be The Aloes Or Lign Aloes Of The Bible. They Are Large Spreading Trees, With Simple Alter ...

Alost
Alost, Li'lost (literally, To The East, From Ger. Ost, East, It Being Near The Eastern Fron Tier), Or Aalst, Filst. A Town In Belgium, The Old Capital Of The Province Of East Flanders, Situated On A Tributary Of The Scheldt, Called The Dender, Which Is Here Converted Into A Canal ...

Alpine Plant
Alpine Plant. A Plant Whose Natural Habitat Is In High Altitudes. These Plants Form One Of The Three Great Climatic Groups Of Xerophytes (q.v.), And Have In General The Ordinary Xerophy Tic• Adaptatious. Among The Leading Peculiarities Of Alpine Vegetation There May He Noted (1) The Gnarled And Twisted Aspect ...

Alps
Alps. The Word Alp Is Of Celtic Origin, And Signifies, According To Some Authorities, "white," And According To Others. "high." Thus The Alps May Be Simply The White Mountains, Or The Nigh Mountains. The Name Is Applied To A Mountain System Of Southern Europe, Which In Cludes Most Of Switzerland, ...

Alsace Lorraine
Alsace-lorraine, Al'sas/blerlin' (ger. Elsass- Lothringen ; Elsass, Ancient Alsatia, From The River Ill + Ger. Sasse, Settler, Ten Ant; Lothringcn, The Realm Of Lothaire, Grand Son Of Charlemagne). An Imperial Territory (reichs/and) Occupying The Southwestern End Of The Lerman Empire, And Hounded By The Grand Duchy Of Luxemburg. The Rhine ...

Alt Zabrze
Alt-zabrze, See Zabrze. Alum (lat. Alumna, Of Unknown Origin). A Double Salt Consisting Of A Sulphate Or Selenate Of The Monovalent Element Or Radicle, And A Sul Phate Or Selenate Of A Sesquioxide. That Crystal Lizes In The Isometric System With Twenty-four Molecules Of Water. The Principal Alums Of Com ...

Altar
Altar (lat. Altar(' Or Altar, Probably Origi Nally A High Place, From Altus, High). The Place On Which Sacrifices Were Made Or Offerings Laid Or Libations Poured Or Some Other Act Of Worship Performed. Altars Were In Use From The Earlie-st, Times Among The Babylonians, The Egyptians, And Later Peoples. ...

Alterative
Alterative (lat. Alter, Other, Another, Different). In Medicine, A Term Applied To Rem Edies That Have Been Found To Act• Slowly And In An Unknown Way, Improving The Nutrition Of The Body. It Is Generally Applied To Medicines Which Are Irritant In Full Do.v.es, Hut Whirl, Almost Im Perceptibly Alter ...

Altitude
Altitude (lat. Altitude, Height, From Aft Us, High, Lofty). In Astronomy, The Elevation Of A Heavenly Body Above The Horizon. It Is M•as Ured Not As A Linear Distance, But By The Angle Which A Line Drawn From The Eye To The Heavenly Body Makes With The Horizontal Line, In ...

Alto Rilievo
Alto-rilievo, Iillt8-re-lyreva (ital. High Relief). The Term Used In Sculpture To Designate That Mode Of Representing Objects By Which They Are Made To Project Strongly And Boldly From The Background Without Being Entirely Detached. In Alto-rilievo Some Portions Of The Figures Usually Stand Quite Free, And In This Respect It ...

Aluminium Or Aluiviinuni
Al'umin'ium Or Alu'iviinuni (from Lat.. (annum, Alum A Metallic Element, Next To Oxy Gen And Silicon The Most Widely Distributed. It Is Not Found Native, Hut In Combination, Chiefly As An Oxide In The Mineral Eorundum ; As A Hydrated Oxide In Diaspore; And In Combination With Oxy Gen And ...

Alunno
Alunno, Niccor.0 (c. 1430-1502), Properly Called Niceolo Da. 1:align° From His Native Town, Or Niceoli) Di Liberatore After His Father. An Italian Painter Of The Early Re Naissance, The Founder Of The Umbrian School. He Was Burn At Foligno, Was A Pupil Of Benozzo Gozzoli, And Was At A Later ...

Alvarez
Alvarez, Ill'vfi'rte, Albert Raymond (18g0 -). A French Vocalist. He Was Born At Bor Deaux. He Was First In The Army As A Musical Conductor: Afterward He Studied At The Conserva Toire, Paris, And Appeared As An Operatic Tenor. Ile First Sang At The Paris Opera In 1892, And Soon ...

Amadis Of Gaul
Am'adis Of Gaul. A Legendary Hero Of The Most Fvous Of Mediaeval Romances, Which Even The Barber Of Don Quixote Had Not The Heart To Consign To The Flames. It Was The Cen Tre And Parent Of A Cycle Of Similar Tales Of Chivalry Which Have Their Representatives In. Every ...

Amalekites
Am'alekites. One Of The Fiercest And Most Warlike Of The Old Nomadic Arabian Tribes. They Dwelt In The Land South Of Judea (num Bers Xiii : 29). Between Idumea And Egypt, Though It Would Also Appear That A Branch Ex Tended At One Time Into Central Palestine. Their Country Is ...

Amalgam
Amalgam (lat. Gk. Prayaa, Malagnm, On Emollient. Plaster, From Paxcumc, Malakos, Soft). An Alloy Of Mercury With One Or Lucre Other Metals. An Amalgam Of Silver Crystal Lizing In The Isometric System Has Been Found Native; A Gold Amalgam, Ton, Has Been Reported From Several H 'ea I Ties, Including ...

Amaranth
Amaranth (0k. 6,uciparroe. Aniarallt0s, From A, A. Neg. -f Papairetv. Rainei N, To Die Away, Wither), Amarant Us. A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Amarantacea‘. This Genus Contains Nearly 100 Known Species, Natives Of Tropical And Temperate Countries, But Chiefly Abounding Within The Tropics. They Are Herbs Or ...

Amari
Amari, A-mii're, Michele ( 1806-89). An Italian Historian And Orientalist. He Was Born At Palermo. At The Age Of Sixteen He Entered A Government Office, And Soon After Ward—his Father Being Condemned To Thirty Years' Imprisonment For A Political Crime— The Duty Of Supporting His Mother And The Other Members ...

Amarna Letters
Amar'na Letters. A Collection Of More Than Three Hundred Letters And Dispatches. In Scribed Upon Clay Tablets, Which Were Found, In The Winter Of 1887-ss, In The Village Of Tel El-amarna (q.v.) In Middle Egypt. They Repre Sent The Asiatic Correspondence Of The Egyptian Court About 1400 B.c., And It ...

Amateur
Amateur' (fr_ From Lat. Atnator, Lover, From (more, To Love). It Would Seem At First Easy To Define The Word "amateur" In Yet It Is A Subject That Has For Half A Century Taxed The Most Active And Subtle Brains Of Two Con Tinents. One Would Say Offhand That The ...

Amazon
Amazon. A River Of South America, For Merly Called The Orellana, After A Spanish Sol Dier Of That. Name, Who First Explored It (map: South America, I) 3). The Name Amazon Is Said To Be Derived From An Indian Word Meaning "boat-destroyer,' From The Dangerous Action Of The Tidal Waves ...

Ambassador
Ambas'sador (med. Lat. Ambasciator, Agent, From Ambasciare, To Go On A Mission, Ear Lier Ambactiare, From Lat. Am/ictus, Vassal; Ac Cording To Festus, Of Celtic Origin; Compare Welsh Amacth, Husbandman, And Goth. Andbuhts, Servant; Ger. Amt, Office). The Highest Rank Of Public Minister Accredited To A Foreign Court. Though Used ...

Amber
Am'ber ( Front Ar. 'aim Bar, Ambergris; Called So From Its Resemblance To Ambergris). A Fossil Resin Of Vegetable Origin. It Is Usually Of A Pale Yellow Color, Sometimes Reddish Or Brownish; It Is Sometimes Transparent, Sometimes Almost Opaque. It Occurs In Round Irregular Lumps. Grains, Or Drops; Has A ...

Ambergris
Ambergris, Iim'be'r-gri:s (fr. A Sabre Gris, Gray Amber; Ar. 'anbar) . Also Spelled A Mbcrg Rise And A Mbergrease. A Fatty Secretion Formed In The Bowels Of Sonic Sperm Whales (q.v.), And Valued As A Material Fur Perfume. It Is Taken From Whales Directly, But More Is Found Floating In ...

Amboyna
Amboy'na (malay Apon.or Mau. The Most Important Of The :moluccas, Belonging To The Dutch. And Lying Southwest From Ceram. And Northwest From Banda. The Island Cove's An Area Of 264 Square Miles And Is Divided By The Bay Of Amboyna Into Two Unequal Peninsulas (slap: East India Islands, G 5), ...

Ambrosia Beetles
Ambro'sia Bee'tles. Beetles Of The Family Scolytid:e, Which Differ From The Bark Bo•ers By Pushing Their Galleries Deeply Into Tim Herwood And Feeding Upon A Substance Called "am Brosia." They Include The Genera Xylebo•us, Platypus, Co•thylus, And Their Allies, And Are Com Mon And Often Injurious Throughout North America. All ...

Ambulance
Ambulance (fr. Bopital Ambulant, Walk Ing Hospital, From Lat. Anibuiarc, To Walk). A Two Or Four-wheeled Wagon Constructed For Con Veying Sick Or Wounded Persons. Ambulances Are Constructed To Run Very Easily, And Are De Signed To Carry One Or Two Tiers Of Stretchers. Some Forms Are Fitted With Water-tank, ...

Ambush
Ambush (for Derivation, See Ambuscade ) . A Strategical Device, Enabling One Force Success Fully Concealed To Surprise, Defeat, Or Capture Another. It Is Probably The One Element Of Strat Egy That Time Has Never Changed; For Notwith Standing The Transformation That Has Taken Place In The General Science Of ...

Amendment
Amend'ment. A Term Used With Reference Both To Legislative Action And Parliamentary And Judicial Procedure. Amendment In Legislation Is The Alteration Of An Existing Statute By Means Of A New Legislative Enactment, Which May Expressly Refer To And Modify The Earlier Law, Or Which By Reason Of Its Inconsistency With ...

Amenemhat
A'menem'hat. The Name Of Four Egyptian Kings Of The Twelfth Dynasty. Amenemiiat I.— He Reigned For Thirty Years, Beginning About 2130 B.c. Pow Lie Came To The Throne Is Not Known. But On His Accession Lie Found Egypt In A State Of Great Disorder. He Thoroughly Reorganized The Government. Restored ...

America In Eecent Times
America In Eecent Times. The Past Fifty Years Have Been :t Period Of Careful Cultivation, Though With Many Exceldions, In America. Thor Ough Drainage And Deep Plowing, Established In England, Ha Ye Heon Also American. A Great Variety Of Fertilizers Are Widely Nsed. In The L'niled States Alone I1 Is ...

American Archieology
Archieology, American. In Many Re Spects The Western Hemisphere Forms A Distinct Archwologie Field, And One Of Peculiar Interest To The Student. In The First Place The Two Great Continents, With Their Insular Appendages, Form A Single Ethnic Province. ,i.e., From The Earliest Times Up To Caucasian Discovery, The Lands ...

American Literature
American Literature. A Term Ap Plied Rather Loosely To The Body Of Writings In The English Language Produced In The Territory Now Occupied By The United States. It Includes A Period Extending From 1608, When Captain John Smith's True Relation Was Published In London, To The Present Day. Strictly Speaking, ...

Americanisms
Americanisms. Words And Phrases Pe Culiar To The United States. They Are Classified By One Writer On This Subject (bartlett) As Fol Low,: I Archaisms, Obsolete. Or Nearly So. In Lreat Britain. (2) English Words Used In A. Dif Ferent Sense. (3) Words Used In The Original Sense In The ...

Amherst Collegea
Am'herst Col'lege..a Leading American College, Situated At Amherst, Mass., And Founded In 1821 By Congregationalists In The Interest Of Christian Education. Up To The Year 1900 The Graduates Numbered 4160, Of Whom 1237 Entered The Clergy, While An Equally Large Number Became Teachers. The Unusual Educational Int! Uenee Wielded By ...

Amicsba
Amics'ba ( Neo-la T. ; Gk. Altotg7j, Change, Alternation). A Microscopic Animalcule, Classified Among The Lowest Protozoa, Which In Habits Fresh Water Or Occasionally Moist Earth. It Appears In Water Under Great Magnification As A Clear, Translucent, Highly Refracting Body. It Is Made Up Of A Substance That Does Not ...

Amiens
Amiens, A'inyn' (from The Lat. Am Biani, The Name Of A Belgic Tribe; Literally "dwellers On The Water;" Compare Gadhel. Abha-in, Abhuinnc, Water, A River). The Capital Of Ancient Picardy And Of The Present French Department Of Somme, Situated On The River Somme, Si Miles By Rail From Paris (map: ...

Amines
Amines ( Derived From Ammonia). A Gen Eral Term Applied In Organic Chemistry To An Im Portant Class Of Basic Compounds Derived By Sub Stituting Hydro-carbon Radieles Like Methyl (ch,), Ethyl (c,h,), Etc., For One Or More Of The Hydrogen Atoms Of Muninonia The Com Pound Ch Nh, Is Called ...