LAND-URA:NT ACTS. Meanwhile, other forces were at work which created a widespread demand for a new class of institutions which should be devoted to sei•ntitic and technical education. A national leader for this movement was found in Justin S. Morrill of Vermont. tin Deeember 14, 1557, Mr. .)lor•ill introduced into the House of Representatives a bill "donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and mechanie arts." Though reported at first adversely, and after passage vetoed by President Buchanan, this bill, with important amendments, was finally passed by Congress, and was approved by President Lincoln, July 2, 1502. In its final form. this land-giant Set was a comprehensive measure providing for "the endowment, support. and maintenance of at least one college [in each State] where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and in•lmling military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as arc related to agri culture and mechanic arts * * * in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life." For those purposes there were granted to the Sc', era! States 30.000 acres of land for each member of Congress, the entire proceeds of the sale of which was to con stitute a perpetual fund yielding not less titan interest. The total fund received by the col leges established under this act is over $10,000, 000, and in 1590 1,240,000 acres still remained to be sold.
Amid many disoonragements within and with out. the courses in agriculture in the colleges established under this act gradually made their way. In 1557, a new impetus was given to their development by the act of Congress (Hatch Act) giving each State $15,000 for en agricultural experiment :station (see ACRICt I.TERAL EXPERI MENT ST.vrnix), \chid] must ordinarily be a department of the land-grant college. And in 1590, these colleges received a further national endttwinent, under a second Morrill Act, provid ing an immediate appropriation of $15,000 to each State and Territory, an increase of $1000 cult year for ten years. and thereafter $25.0(10 annually. "to be applied only to instruction in agriculture. the mechanic arts, the English lan guage, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, natural, and economic science." Pro vision is made for separate institutions for white and colored students in States which may desire to make such an arrangement. Fourteen States
have taken advantage of this provision. These supplementary acts have been of great advantage to agricultural education in this country.
Sixty-live colleges are in operation under the acts of 1502 and 1590, of which about sixty main tain courses in agriculture. These institutions are brought together to constitute a national system of higher education in the sciences and industries by the Association of American Agri cultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, the Office of Experiment Stations of the Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Education of the Department of the Interior. The colleges of agriculture may be divided into three classes, according to the general differences in their organization: (1) Colleges having only courses in agriculture; (2) agricultural and mechanical colleges; and (3) colleges (or schools or depart ments) of agriculture in universities. The Mas sachusetts Agricultural College is the only purely agricultural college in this country. Twenty seven States and Territories have agricultural and mechanical colleges. and in twenty the courses in agriculture are connected with the State universities. Harvard University also offers courses in agriculture through the Bussey lusti tutior. The college course in agriculture in most of these institutions extends through four years and leads to a bachelor's degree. it varies considerably in different institutions, as regards the requirements both for admission and for In some cases students are admitted directly from the common schools, while in others the entrance requirements are on a level with those of higher grade colleges. In 190] there were nearly 7000 students in the agricultural courses in these colleges. Short courses of a more elementary and practical nature also are given in many of these colleges. Special schools have been organized in a few institutions, notably a dairy school in the University of Wisconsin, and a sug ar-makers' school at New Orleans, in connection with the Louisiana State University. Various forms of university extension work in agriculture are largely engaged in by these colleges. through the farmers' institutes (see FARMERS' INSTI TUTE) and home reading courses, and, broadly speaking. through the publications of the experi ment stations.