CHRISTIAN ICONOGRAPHY. in the early Chris tian the representations were few in number and quite simple, having much freedom to the artist. They embrared subjects like the "Good Shepherd" and the emblems of faith, fa miliar to all. In the fourth and fifth centuries iconography became more complicated. The clergy began to use it as a factor of systematic religious instruction. controlling the representa tions which were now executed in strict. accord an•e with formulas. Christ, as King of heaven, was by far the favorite subject from the fourth to the seventh century, lvhile from the eighth to t he twelfth, the 1111(1 from the Revelation were in vogue. There were two the Eastern or Ilyzantine and the Western or Latino-German. The former was by far the most original and important, dominating not only the East, but Europe during the Carlo vingian period, and remaining supreme in Italy until late in the Gothic age. it found its ex pression in mosaics, frescoes, and illuminated manuseripts, sculpture being excluded as a result of the Iconoclast ic conflict. (lice BYZANTINE ART.) The iconography of the Romanesque (q.v.) period was meagre and unsystematic, but during the Gothic age an independent \Vestern system orig inated in France, spreading throughout Europe. In the North it found its elder expression in the sculptures of the great cathedrals. and endeav ored to represent the encyclop;edie conceptions of the scholastics. (See GOTHIC ART.) In Italy it manifested itself chiefly in painting. leafing raphy remained under clerical control until, with the Renaissance, the human element superseded the divine, the old subjects being used as a means for the expression of human feeling and artistic ability. The old subjcets from biblical
history, especially those illustrating the plans of salvation and those from the lives of the saints, continued to be used, the most popular subject being the Madonna with the Christ Child, repre sented as an earthly mother or in more divine attitudes. The more important subjects of Christian iconography are treated tinder sepa rate titles, like CHRIST IN ART; lloty FAMILY. for the important part played by emblems and symbols in iconography, see the article SYMIn IL !MN), and such special articles as AtotEot.E; NIN1• Bus, etc.
ItinnocitvellY. The foundations of the modern science of Christian iconography were laid by Didrcm. Ironogrophii grrrque el /aline (Paris. IS45; English translation in Bohn's Li brary), and Anton Springer (9.v.).
See also Durand. Iligloirc rig Dieu, iconographic des prrsonnrs dirinrs. (Paris. IS44) ; Wessely. Ikonooraphir GoiteR earl iicr Ileiligen (Leipzig, 1875). The hest modern works are: Barbier de Mont atilt, Trait( d'ironographir rhrtticnac (Paris, ISM), and Detzel. air chrisiliehr lkono gra phir (Freiburg, 1895). There is no good work on the subject in English, the writings of Mrs.
Jameson being unscientifie. For iconography in the sense of classical portraiture, consult the monumental works of Visconti; Iconographic (3 vols., Paris. 1808); feunoy•uphio mimthre (3 vols., ili., I SI S•20 I ; Pernnuilli, Rom isrite !iconographi• (Stuttgart, 1882-91); Uric ch ische Ikonographie (Munich, 1:101).