HITT'TON, CILAIILES ( 1737-IS23). A self-edu cated English mathematician, horn at Newcastle on-Tyne, of humble parentage. He received most of his education in a school at Jesmond, where, at the age of eighteen, he became master. The number of pupils having increased, he, in 1760, opened a mathematical school in Newcastle, and also taught mathematics at the Head School of the city. Among his pupils was John Scott, afterwards Lord Eldon. Chancellor of England. In 1770 he was engaged by the city of Newcastle to draw tip an accurate map of the city and the suburbs. He became professor of mathematics in the Royal MilitaryAeademy at Woolwich (1773), and the following year was made a fellow of the Royal Society. He made important contributions to the Philosophical Transactions, and in 1778 gained the Copley medal for his papers on "Force of Exploded Gunpowder," and "Velocities of Balls." Ile was appointed by the Royal Society
to determine the mean density and mass of the earth. His report appeared in the Philosophical Transactions for 177S. In 1779 he was made for eign secretary of the Royal Soeiety, but resigned in 1793. Owing to failing health, he resigned his professorship in 1807, and was granted a pen sion of £500 a year. He was editor of the Ladies' Diary front 1774 to 1917. The most important of his works are. besides those mentioned above: The Diarian iliseellany (1775); Mathematical Tables (1785): llathenzatical and Philosophical Dictionary (1795) ; A Course of Mathematics 11798 and subsequent editions): Recreations in Mathematics and .Vatural Philo.sophy, from the French of Montuela (4 vols., 1903) : "On Cubic Equations and Infinite Series." in the Phil osophical Transactions for 1780.