DISEASES OF THE STONIACII. ( 1 ) Stomach staggers (see. STAGGEtts), or gorged stomach (1111 portion): Distention of the stomach caused by food, in which the stomach loses the power of con tracting upon its contents. (2) Tympanites of the stomaeh: A disease corresponding to that of 'hoven' or 'blown' in cattle, and frequently due to the overloading of the stomach with young, succulent. herbage, which. after its arrival in the Etomaell, liberates quantities of fermentation gas sufficient to distend the stomach seriously. Over feeding is a very frequent cause of stomach-lffisit, particularly if the overfeeding is followed im mediately by hard work. The symptoms are very much the same as for stomach staggers, and the treatment must be at once vigorous and im mediate. As a rule, eases of this trouble occur away from the stable. From two to four ounces of common baking-soda should be given as quickly as possible, an additional half-ounce of cayenne pepper tieing given to aid the stomach to contract and expel the gas. Charcoal may be given in any amount, and any medicine that will check fermentation or absorb the gases will be found useful. Cold water dashed with force over the stain:mil is frequently an aid. (3) Eliptiire of the stomach: If eonvineed that the diagnosis is correct it is better to destroy the animal at once. If, however, there is a possibility of mis take, powdered opium in one-dram closeR may he given every two or three hours, thus keeping the stomach as quiet as possible. The case should be kept under the observation of a skilled veterinary. (4) Bois: There are so many opin ions extant eon erring this disease, many of which are erroneous. that it will repay any owner of stock to make a careful study of it. With regard to the insect itself, see BOT and GADFLY. Of the numerous insect parasites on solipeds, the gad-flies ((Estrithr) are the most important. The species responsible for the above-named disease infest chiefly tile stomach and duodenum—a small gut leading from the stomach. Nearly all country horses, as well as those experiencing their first year in the city. have the hots, but the
common opinion that hots frequently cause colic pains is erroneous. If in large enough numbers they may sadly interfere with digestion. The animal may not thrive and emaciation may fol low, hut. beyond this they are harmless. It is fortunate that. such is the ease, for there are no medicines that affect them: neither acids. alkalies, nor anodynes are capable of securing their, ejection from the stomach. The best that can be done is to watch for their eggs on the legs and body of the horse during the late sum mer and autumn, and carefully scrape them off and burn them. (5) Indigestion: indigestion is imperfectly performed digestion, which In the horse causes symptoms closely resembling those of dyspepsia in man. A great cause of indiges tion with the horse is found in the food itself. (See section on Care of the Horse.) The teeth are in many instances to blame, their sharp, irregu lar, or decayed condition preventing any perfect mastication, and causing the animal to swallow his food before it receives the requisite admix ture of saliva. The principal seat of indigestion is in the stomach or small intestine. It is char acterized by an irregular appetite, refusal of food or gorging, and a disposition to eat unusual substances, as wood, salt, bedding, and frequent ly his own faeces. The animal loses flesh, and the skin becomes hard and dry and hide-bound. The treatment usually consists of a careful regu lation of food as regards quality, quantity, and time of feeding, and an exercise of similar care as regards the water-supply. The condition of the mouth and teeth must also be attended to, and the teeth if sharp or irregular must be rasped down, or extracted if decayed. If the indigestion is caused by ravenous eating, the animal should be fed from a manger sufficiently wide to allow the spreading of the grain, which will usually compel the horse to eat slowly. Frequently a cathartic is given at the outset.