At the same time liolbein was occupied with other forms of design. .\niong his drawings of the period :ire two admirable youths. one a pencil. supposed to repro-sent Ilona-in himself, the other a chalk drawing in the 'Museum of Basel. One of his favorite subjects was flue contemporary Ger man "Lanzkneelite" (soldiers). in various actions and attitudes. To the same period belong his drawings of Basler female costumes. which may have been dcsitrns for actual use. His designs for glass-painting in the Basel 7Museum include ten wash drawings of "Passion Scenes." the equals of the painted series mentioned above. Madonnas and other biblical subjects, and coats of arms—all in beautiful Benaissanee training. As a designer for wood-cuts llolbein is second only to Diirer. Ile left over three hundred Mocks, the best of which were cut by Flans Llitzelburger. Firs illustrated Luther's Bible, and his "llistori arum Veteris Instrumenti Icones" ("Pictures from the Old Testament"), ninety-one plates, were first published together at Lyons in 1538. Best known of all is his "Dance of Death." fifty-eight plates in all, replete with humor and satire upon the ecclesiastical and social condi tions of the day. It was published in book form at Lyons in 1538. and has been often republished; a good modern edition is that of Lippmann (Ber lin. 1878).
The advent of the Reformation and the con sequent disturbances in Basel were the chief cause of Holbein's journey to England in 1526. Equipped with recommendations from his friend Erasmus, he found a ready welcome in the house of Sir Thomas Alore at Southwark. His activity during his stay there, which lasted two years, may best he studied in the fine series of chalk drawings at Windsor Castle (published in Lon don, 1SS4). In 1527 he painted Sir Thomas Nore, now in possession of Henry Huth, London: Sir Henry Guildford, in Windsor Castle; and Archbishop Warham, of Canterbury, in Lambeth Palace (replica in the Louvre), the best of all— a wonderful piece of realism and strength. Among his portraits of 1528 are those of Nicholas Kratzer, the King's astrologer, in the Louvre. and of Thomas Gods-alye and his son John. at Dres den. His famous picture of More and his family is lost, but the studies for the heads are at Windsor, and the pen sketch which he took for Erasmus is still at Basel.
He returned to Basel in 1529 and purchased a house. But during his stay the storm of icono clasm broke over the city, and the demand for religious pictures ceased. Holbein. indeed, fin ished his frescoes in the Council Chamber, add ing two large subjects from the Old Testament, "Samuel Reproving Saul" and "Rehoboam's Pride." Both paintings are lost, hut the sketches in the Museum of Basel, masterly in composition and dramatic action, show Holbein as a great his torical painter. In 1529 he painted a highly real istic portrait of his wife and two children on paper (Basel Museum), two portraits of Eras mus (Parma and Basel), and one of Melaneh thon (Hanover). In 1532, notwithstanding the efforts of the Burgomaster and Council of Basel to retain him, he returned to England.
On his arrival at London be resided with the German merchants of the Steelyard, with whom he found occupation. In 1532 and in the fol lowing years he painted a number of portraits of these merchants, of which examples survive at Vienna, Windsor, Munich, Brunswick, and Pet worth. The best is that of George Gysse (1532), in the Museum of Berlin. remarkable for strong character and the detailed finish of the acces sories. On the occasion of nne Boleyn's corona tion he designed for the German merchants an allegorical pageant of Parnassus: he decorated their guild-hall with two large paintings, of which there are sketches in the Louvre, "Triumph of Riches" and "Triumph of Poverty." it is not
known when he first entered Henry \Mt.'s ser vice, hut in 1536 we find him mentioned as the King's painter. In 1537 he was sent to Brussels to portray Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan, whom the King thought of marrying, and in 1539 to portray Anne of Cleves. whose por trait, now in the Louvre. had much to do with the King's marrying her. His chief work for Henry VIII. was a group painted on the wall of the Privy Chamber at Whitehall, in 1537, rep resenting the King with his father and mother and Jane Seymour. This painting was destroyed in time tire of 169S, but the cartoon of the King is at Ilardwiek Hall, and there are several copies of the portrait. the best known of which is at Windsor Castle. Holbein painted another excel lent portrait of Jane Seymour. now in the Gal lery of Vienna. and of Edward, Prince of Wales. at Hanover. The King also commissioned him to design various decorations, especially in the gold smith's art, in which he acquitted himself with great taste and ability, as is evident from the original designs in the British Museum and else where. In 1538 he visited Basel, where he was banqueted by the council, and he promised to re turn after two years, which promise. however, he did not keep.
Ilis principal portraits, executed during his last stay in England, besides those mentioned above, are "The Ambassadors" (1533), in the National Gallery: Robert Cheeseman (1533), the King's falconer, at The Hague; Thomas Cron well, at Tittenhanger: Hubert 3Iorett, at Dres den; Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. at Windsor; two "Unknown Men" at Berlin and Vienna, and an "Unknown Woman" at Vienna: Melchior Mang (1543), in the lluybreeht collec tion. Antwerp: Dr. John Chambers. the King's physieian, at Windsor. Ile also painted a num ber of miniatures, among which is that of Queen Catharine Howard in the library at Windsor, and executed a number of important designs for wood engravings. ineluding the title-page of Cover dale's Bible, illustrations of Cranmer's catechism, and "King Henry in Council," the title-page of Hall's Chronicle.
Holbein died of the pestilence in London in the autumn of 1543. He is chiefly known as a por trait painter, but his religious pictures, and especially his mural decorations, show that, had the opportunity presented itself. he might have been one of the greatest historical painters of all times. Ilk portraits are absolutely true to na ture. yet show a wonderful interpretation of char acter. The excellence of his drawing is attested by his large number of chalk and other drawings, especially in the Museum of Basel and in Wind sor Castle. His method in portraiture seems to have been to make a careful chalk drawing of the sitter, which he afterwards transferred to the canvas. Ifolbein is by far the greatest colorist of the German school. and although the details of his portraits are highly finished, they in no wise interfere with the general effect. As a designer for he showed a thorough under standing of the art. combined with a fantasy and humor which have seldom been surpassed.
Consult: Woltmann, Huns I 1 nitwit; and scine 'Zit ( Leipzig. 1874-76) ; \Vornum, Life and Workg Holbrin (London, 186(i) ; A. Schmid.
11 ()Mein des .1 ii (loom Ent trickclnny 26 (Basel, 1892). See also the biographies of Cun dall (London, 1879) Knackfuss I Bielefeld, 1897) : and of Wessely, in Dohme's un.qt and Ka nstler Dent sehland.c (Leipzig.. I8771. For reproductions of Holbein's works. compare \lantz. flans floThein (Paris, 1879) Dcsgins Women/cats do Hans II ono- in (Di_ 1S86).