HOLKAR, hi,Yk9r. The name of a powerful Mahratta family, later adopted as a title by the rulers of Indore, one of the native States of Cen tral India. The founder of the family was Mul liar Rao liolkar, who was born in the Deccan in 1693, and having gained by his valor the favor of the Peshwa (q.v.), obtained from him the western half of Malwa, with lndore for his capital. In 1761 he joined the great league of the princes of Hindustan, formed to bar the prog ress of Ahmed Shah Durrani, and was present at the battle of l'anipat, ,Tanuary 6, 1761; but as he fled shortly after the battle began, he was suspected of treason. Holkar was the only Mahratta chief of note who escaped the slaugh ter. He died in 1768, and was succeeded by his grandson Malli Rao, who died soon after. The government then passed to Aylah Bade, the mother of Malli Rao, who resigned the military power to Toghaki liolkar. On his death in 1797 his natural son, Jeswunt Rao Holkar, a man able, brave, and unscrupulous, seized lmlore, but was driven out by Sindia (q.v.). Such, how ever. was llolkar's reputation for energy and ability that part of the victorious army deserted to him, with whose aid he obtained a signal vic tory over Sindia and the Peshwa (October, 1802). After fighting a long time against the
British with varying success, he was compelled to conclude peace. He died insane October 20, 1811. llis son, Mulhar Rao Holkar a minor, suc ceeded, and in 1817 declared war against the Brit ish, but his army was totally routed at Mahedpore. December 21st; whereupon he sent oilers of peace, which were accepted, and an English residency was established at Imlo•e in January, ISIS. Ile died in 1833. Martund Rao Holkar, 1111m Ran Dolkar, and Kunnli Rao Holkar successively ruled after him. The last of these died without heirs in 1843, and the East India Company as sumed the right of nominating Tukagi Rao 1101 kar, who did not belong to the llolkar family. lie was educated under the auspices of the Brit ish Government, and displayed great ability, and always remained on the most friendly terms with the British. In 1886 he was succeeded by his eldest son, Shiraji Rao llolkar.