HUNAN, hM'n:in' (Chin., south of the lake, i.e. the Tung-ting Lake). An inland province of China, bounded on the east by the mountains of Kiang-si, on the south and southwest by the Nan-ling Mountains, which separate it from the provinces of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si, on the west by Kwei-chow and Sze-ehuen, and on the north by Hu-peli (Map: China. I) 6). Area, about 77,000 square miles. It is made up of the basins of four rivers, which discharge into the Tung-ting Lake and through it into the Yang-tse. The chief of these rivers are the Siang, which rises in the Nan-ling and flows north, receiving many tributary waters in its course; the Tsze; and the Yuen, which has its origin in the southeast of Kwei-ehow, the latter furnishing the shortest and most satisfactory route to Kwei-chow. Yunnan, and Burma, being navi gable by native boats as far as Ch'en-yuan-fu on the Kwei-chow frontier. The general slope of the province is toward the lake. hills at
taining in some places the height of mountains are found in the south, southeast, and along the Kwei-chow border on the west. The soil is fer tile, and in many parts two crops a year are produced. The chief agricultural products are tea, rice, hemp, and tobacco. Hunan is one of the principal tea-producing regions of China, and immense quantities are shipped every year to foreign countries from Hankow. The coarser varieties are prepared in brick form and sent overland via Hankow to Siberia and Russia. Both bituminous and anthracite coal is found and mined. The anthracite is of good quality and is exported. Iron, copper, and tin are also found. Capital, Ch'ang-sha-fu. The population of Hu-nan is estimated at about 22,000,000. The inhabitants are noted for their lawlessness and their hostility to foreigners.