HUSS. Jolts (c.13711-11151. A Bohemian re ligious reformer. lie was born at Flu-Metz tor Ilusinec ), Bohemia, northwest of Bildweis. II is baptismal name W:14 Jan ; front his birtliplaee he was called Johannes de Illussyneez. or. in Huss. The day and year of bi- birth are unknown. His parents were Czeili peasants. Ile studied at the University of Prague. where he made a reputation for seholarship, became Al. _1. (13961. university lecturer (139S). dean of the philosophical faculty (1401 and was reotor in 11(12 and 1403. In philosophy lie was a realist. lie became a priest in 1101. ()wing to the mar ria!re in 1352 of Anna, sister of Xing 11'ene•slas, to King Hichrtrd II. of England. there was nimbi intercourse between Bohemia and England. So the writings of the great English theologian, i died 13S41. came into Bohemia. Iluss read them eagerly, and availed himself of per mission to le,•tiire upon them in the university. Ile went further. and translated them into Bo hemian, and the world has given Huss credit for writings which were merely translations from iclif. lie also defended 11 ielif's opinions. not only in the lecture-room. hut from the pulpit. As he Was a very popular preacher in the Betlt leht Chapel in Prague. and eonfessor to the and a scholar of high npute. this stand attracted wide attention.
N•iclif had. however, not escaped the charge of heresy, and so in I In3 Buss •a, the university r.uthorities to dismiss forty•tive sentences or theses which he had derived mostly front 1Vielif ; and in 1-1()9. when the Pope. Alex ander V.. had issued his bull against the teaehings of \Vielif and the Archbishop of Prague had burned ‘Viclif'q writings, linss felt the effect of the opposition lie liad stirred up on the part of the hierarchy. the priests. and the monks by denounc ing, in imitation of Wiclif, the corruption of the Church. In 1410 he and his followers were put under the ban. Undeterred, he kept on preaching as before. In 1411 Pope John XXIII. proclaimed a crusade against King Ladislas of Naples, and promised indulgences to the volunteers. Huss the next year gave out a university debate upon the question of indulgences, which only widened the breach between himself and the university au thorities and the clergy. In 1412 a Papal inter dict was issued against him. In reply he wrote his book On the Church, again drawing heavily from Wiclif. and appealed from the Pope to a general council and to Christ; and then, feeling no longer safe in Prague. he withdrew to the castles
of certain friendly noblemen. In 1414. obedient to a summons, but under the protection of King Wenee;las, and with a safe conduct to go to Constance. given by the Emperor Sigismund. he went to the general council which had been con vened in Constance.
Ilis journey thither was a triumph, and he entered the city (November 3(1) in great state. ..1t first he was a free man, but on November 28th he was apprehended and charged with having made an attempt to leave the city. and cast into prison. in spite of the indignant protests of the Bohemian and Polish nobles. He may have fan cied that he would have opportunity to defend his views in open debate, but he quickly learned that the council intended to try him as a heretic. lie was, however, long kept in suspense. for it was not till June 5, 1415, that he was first formally accused. On June Sth thirty-nine charges were exhibited against him, some of which he acknowl edged as fairly based upon his teachings, while others he declared to be misrepresentations. Being required to recant his alleged errors,he refused to do so until they should he proved to be errors. On June ISth the articles of his condemnation were prepared; on June 24th his books were burned; on July 1 his attempts to come to an under standing with his prosecutors failed, and on Sat urday, July 6th. he was condemned to be burned at the stake for heresy. The same day the sen tence was executed, and the martyr's ashes were thrown into the Rhine. The Emperor. probably influenced by the fact that condemned heretics had no claim to protection, did not interfere, as he might have done. The death of Huss caused sorrow and indignation throughout Bohemia, and led to the so-called Hussite War. See uss ITES.
A critical edition of Huss's writings, distin guishing between his own works and his transla tions from Wielif, is lackin... The best we have is F. Palacky's Document,: .Joannis MIR (Prague. 1869). The works of Huss in Bo hemian were published by K.J. Erbeu (Prague. 1865-0S). E. de Bonneehosa published a French translation of his letters (Paris, 1846). from an English translation was made (London. IS-16) ; F. B. Mikowec prepared one in German (Leipzig. 1869). Novotny began a German translation of his sermons (Garlitz. 18551. For his hiography. consult: Gillett (Boston. 1863 64). and Wratislaw (London. 1882) ; for his relation; to 'Mehl. Loserth. Wiclif and Miss, translation (London. 1834)