HYDERABAD, more properly. HAIDARA BAD, or NIZ.1. NI''; Dow txtoNs. A large native State of southeastern India, bounded on the north by Ilcrar and northeast by the Central Provinces, on the southeast by :Madras, and on the west by Boinhay (Nlap: India, C 5). Area, 32.693 square miles. The surface is an ele vated plateau 1300 to 2000 feet above sea-level, diversified by mountain. valley, and plain, and watered by the Godavari with its affluents the DinIna, the Nanjara. and Pranhita; the with its affluents the Illiima and and the Wardha with its affluents the Painganga and Wa ingallga. The climate is fairly healthful; the annual precipitation registers 23 to 32 inches. The geological formation is a base of granite, and tale slate, superimposed by clay, limestone. sandstone, hornblende, feldspar, and in some districts columnar basalt. Iron and coal are mined. and gold, garnet. and diamond beds, which formerly supplied the Golconda treasury, still exist, although modern mining operations for the precious minerals have hither to been mu-enumerative. The soil is compara tively fertile. but sparsely cultivated. Cotton, maize, wheat, millet, and rice are the chief agricultural products, and tobacco, sugar-eane, and indigo are also grown. Fruit culture, mar ket gardening. pasturage of cattle and of sheep, and horse-breeding are other agricultural branches. Bail seasons, notably in 1900, have resulted in famine. There are domestic manu factures of silk. woolen and cotton fabrics, ear pets. and leather. Raw silk, cotton, hides, dye stuffs. and resins are exported. and cereals, cloth minds, hardware. salt. and timber are im ported. Good inilitary roads traverse the estate, and in 1901 I hi no were 715 miles of railroad open. The rider of Nizam is a loharninedaii, as are also the Government officials. althmerh the sub jects are chiefly Ilindus. There is a British Resi dent and adviser at Hyderabad, the capital. The annual revenue is about 39.000.000 nipees. The population. in 1391. was 1E537.040: in 1901,
11.141.142. or 135 to the square mile; of the population in 1901, 9.3,70.339 were Hindus: Mo hammedans numbered 1.155.750: Christians, of whom half were Roman Catholics. 22.996; :Tains. 20.345: Sikhs. 4335: and Parsis, 1463. A native army is maintained. consisting of 76n0 men, infantry, artillery, and cavalry, officered by Brit ish soldiers. Education made considerable prog ress during the latter decades of the last cen tury; but only a small per cent. of the children attend school, and the mass of the population is illiterate.
Ilyderabad. formerly attached to the dominions of the Rajahs of Terlingana and 13ijanagair, in 1513 became a separate kingdom, but in 16:‘,7 lapsed into n province of the Mogul Empire. 111 1730 Azaf slab, one of Auningzebe's warriors, was nominated N iza tegulator of t he Statt—aml Subalidar of the Decean, and •ventti ally made himself independent. After his death in 1713, the throne was contested by his son, Nazir dung, supported by the British East India Company, and his grandson, Mirzafa Jung, whose cause was espoused by the French under Dupleix. The latter triumphed until Mirzafa NI as murdered by l'atan chiefs. Anarchy reigned until Nizam Ali, \•ho ascended the throne in 17b1, was defeated by the British, and signed the Treaty of 1766, which coded the Northern Circars to the East India Company.. The nilb.44Itivnt misrule of Nizain Ali's successors increased the territorial debt. which was liquidated by a fur ther cession of land to the East India Company, with the stipulation that part of the revenues should maintain the Nizam's contingent, a sub sidiary force of 3000 'tam for the protection of his dominions. During the mutiny of 1357 an unsuccessful attack was made on the British Residency at Hyderabad; the Nizain and his troops, however, remained faithful to the Brit• ish, and the State has since been for its loyalty to the Imperial power. Consult Grille, The history of the Deccan (London, 1396).