IB'LIS. One of the names of the Devil, in the Koran, who, however, is more often called Shai iiin (Satan). Mils is the chief of the fallen angels. who was once a gond angel named Azazil, but having refused at God's command to render homage to Adam, was first condemned to death. hut subsequently respited till the judgment day (Koran, vii. 13). The legend is borrowed from .Tewish sources, and is embodied in the Midrashic exposition of Genesis, chapter iii. (consult Wiinsche, .11idrash Brreshit Rabba, p. 32 sqq., Leipzig, ISS1). Both words for devil used by Mohammed appear to he of foreign origin, the form Shaitan coning close to the designation of Satan in Ethiopic—while lblis may be a of modified in order to adapt it to a derivation from an Arabic stein balasa 'to confuse,' with which, however. it has really nothing to do. Of the two terms, the former is found in the Koran S7 times, the latter only 11 times. Mot eover, the plural of the former is used, whereas the latter occurs only in the singular. and was regarded by Mo hammed as a name for a specific devil, the arch devil spirit; ,8huitun, both in the Koran and the later literature, is used as a general designation devils or evilly disposed demons.
On the basis of the utterances in the Koran, the doetrine of the Devil is further developed in Mohammedan theology, influenced by tho specifically Christian and Jewish conceptions current in the Orient whereby the Devil, as a single personage, usurps the powers and at tributes of the numerous body of jinns (q.v.) Of popular belief. The latter, howevi.r, as a survival of primitive religion, continue to hold sway among the people in general. so that in the folklore of the Arabs it is the jinns who are constantly introduced, both for good and evil lair poses, whereas the mention of Hills and of the Satans is largely confined to the body of theologi cal writings. In thi• hitter the contrast bet WM:II the Devil :mil the angels is prominently put for ward, and the view is expressed that each in dividual has a devil and an angel appointed as his companions, the former tempting him to evil deeds, the latter prompting him to good. The life of man in a constant struggle to be rid of the former and to keep close to the latter. Consult Weil, Ifiblisehe lvender; der llaselattin Her (Frankfort, 1845).