HERA is, in all particulars, a thoroughly Hel lenic conception, and the theory of Semitic origin may lie dismissed in this, as in most other eases; there is, however, no general agreement as to the derivation of the name or the original nature of the goddess. While sonic authorities see in her an earth-goddess, or even the special earth-god dess of Argos. and in her union with Zeus a pic ture of the union of earth and heaven. others, especially Roscher, regard her as a moon-goddess, and thus especially a goddess of women. and from this relation developing into the wife of Zeus and guardian of married life. This latter school derives the name from a root sore or hart-, to protect, cf. Latin servare, so that the original form would be ''EpFa. Whatever the original nature of Hera may he, there can be no doubt as to the position she occupies in the Greek religion. She is the consort of Zeus. and their union, the 'Sacred Marriage' (lEpas -ycilios), is the proto type of human wedlock. This marriage is the centre of Hera's worship in all places. As the guardian of marriage she also assumes guardian ship over other phases of female life, and seems to have been regarded often as a goddess of child birth, e.g. at the births of Hercules and Eurys thesis. though this function was usually at tributed to Eileithyia. The cow was one of her sacred animals, and in later times the peacock was regarded as her favorite bird. The cult of Hera was universal throughout the Greek world, but was especially prominent at a few places. Argos was one of the oldest and most famous centres of her worship. The sanctuary was situated to the east of the city on a spur of the ridge hounding the Argive plain, and nearer Mycence than Argos. The old temple was burnt in n.c. 423. and a building at once erected, which contained a gold and ivory statute by Polycleitus. The priestesses of the temple were matrons. and were held in high honor, as it was by the years of the priestess that the Argives dated events. The sanctuary was excavated I?y the Ameriean School of Classical Studies at Athens in 1892 and the following years. (See Waldstein, The dryirc Iletwoon. New York. 1902.) The riles of Ilera. at this place included an important festival which seems to have represented the mystic mar riage. as did her festivals at. other temples. Next to that of Argos was the famous temple on the island of Samos, of which one column is still standing. Here was a tradition of the birth of the goddess, under a sacred willow, and another annual marriage festival. The hest defined volt
of 11era as a marriage-goddess was at and on the neighboring summit of Alount von. where a festival was celebrated in honor of and Ilera. as it was said that Zeus had carried the maiden Hera from Eubma to .1 on this mountain. ID Hera appears not only as the matron and noble queen of the gods. but also as the jealous. proud. and somewhat shrewish wife. bitterly angered at her husband's numerous infidelities. and frequently the children of her rivals. These stories of Olympian quarrels do not seem to have influenced the cult. The most famous statue of Hera was that by Polycleitus at Argos, but no certain copies are known. and this is also true of the representations by other great artists. In deed, statues or busts of Ilera are comparatively rare in our II111,1•11111S. The goddess is represented standing. fully draped. with the sceptre. and ill many eases with a veil. Of busts, the oldest is the rude limestone head front Olympia. The most celebrated are probably the Hera Farness in Naples. once believed to be a eopy of the work of Polyeleitus, though now recognized as helonging to an earlier period and different sehool, and the beautiful llera lanlovisi. in Rome. a work prob ably of the fourth century 01)101 the (late is still touch discussed. In reliefs. paintings, and especially on vases, the type of Hera natu rally varies much, but in general preserves the character of the matron and queen.
(for Irwin()) was throughout Italy the consort of 'Jupiter. and the queen of heaven. The worship of Juno shows the closest paral lelism to that of her husband. To her the kalends (first) of each month were sacred, and in the earlier belief she also controlled the thonderholt. This aspeet of her cult is shown in her name. ierying. lint it gradually passed into the background. and Juno beenme the goddess of women. especially of wives and mothers: her great festival as lawitor. who helped in child birth, was the Natronalia on the first I if March, and other prominent celebrations in her honor were in the hands of women. On the Capitol she was not only honored in the shrine of Jupiter, Ion also had her own temple as llonrhi. where later the Roman mint was situated. In later times Greek influenee much affected the Roman (ult. Consult in addition to the standard 711V 1 110,01 t/ vad Hera (Leipzig. 1R7.51: Overlipek. Grirchisrhr ii. (L•ipzig. 1873).