HISTORY. For the earliest period of Italian history. consult: Bury. Later Roman Em pire (London, 1889) ; Hodgkin. Italy and Her Invaders (Oxford. 1880) ; for the period after Charlemagne. Gregorovius. History of the, City of Jeanie in the Middle Ages, translated by Hamil ton (London, 1895-1900), which in spite of its name a good account of the struggle's in the rest of Italy; for the relation of the Empire and Italy, consult: Giesehreeht, Go:•hichi( (ler dcutschrn kaiscr:cit (Bruw..wick, 1833-55) ; :Ull man, History of Latin Christianity (London. 1840). For the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, consult: Burekbardt. The Civilization of the Renaissance in. Italy (London, 1892) ; Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy (7 vols., London. 1S75 86). The most thorough critical general history of Italy is Renehlin, Geschiehte Italicns. to 1870 (1859-73). There are numerous histories of indi vidual States and periods. On the nineteenth century and the struggle for unity, there are ninny letters. biographies, and memoirs. For the
general history of this period, see Stillman. The Unity of Italy, 151:7,95 (Cambridge. MS), in cluding a bibliography: Tivaroni, Storia eritica del risorgitnento (9 vols., 1891-96) ; Treitsehke, Historisehe mend politische Aufsiitze, vol. ii. (5th ed. IS86) : Thayer. Dawn of Italian Independence (2 vols., Boston, 1893) ; Chiala, Dal congresso di Plombieres at congresso di Berlino (1892) ; Ber sezio, II regno di Vittorio Eininanuele (S vols., 1578-95) : Mistrali, Da Novara a Roma (5 vols., 1870-79), for the period 1840-70; Grattina, .8toria d'Italia (1882), for the period 1866-SO; Orsi, Modern Italy, 1748-1898, translated from the Italian and published in "Stories of the Nations Series" (New York, 1900) ; Cesaresco, The Lib eration of Italy, 1815-70 (London, 1805) ; Storia costituzionalc del run° d'Italia 184.s-OS (Florence, 1899). For detailed bibliography, consult Langlois, Manuel de bibli ographic historique (Paris, 1896).