ISMAIL PASHA, es'Inii-el' pasha' (1830 95). Viceroy and Khedive of Egypt. He was the second son of Ibrahim Pasha (q.v.), and was born at Cairo, December 31, 1830. He was edu cated in Paris, and on his return to Egypt was dispatched on diplomatic missions to several European capitals. Subsequently he was ap pointed regent by his uncle, Said Pasha, during his absence in Europe. In 1361 he was placed in command of the army, and carried on a vic torious campaign against the Sudanese tribes. On the death of Said Pasha in 1S03 he succeeded him as Viceroy of Egypt. During the Civil War in America he acquired vast wealth by the pro duction of cotton. Regarding the construction of the Suez Canal (begun under Said Pasha) as advantageous for Egypt, he actively encouraged the enterprise. In 1866 he secured from the Sultan the hereditary succession to the throne of Egypt in his direct line, and in 1S67 had conferred upon him the title of Khedive. Not satisfied with these privileges, he demanded more, threatening to withdraw the troops he had sent against the Cretan insurgents and to seize Crete if his demands were refused. By the advice of foreign powers, he recalled his demand. Nevertheless, by extending his rule over the regions of the Upper Nile, by making foreign loans for the increase of his army and navy, and by proposing the neutralization of the Suez Canal, he made himself practically an independent sov ereign. The Sultan commanded him to reduce his army, to recall his orders for ironclads and breech-loaders, and to put a stop to the con traction df foreign loans, threatening him with deposition if he refused. Not receiving the ex pected aid from Russia and other powers. Ismail
submitted. Later he received new prerogatives, giving him control of his army. and liberty to make loans and commercial treaties. By the building of public roads, the introduction of new methods of agriculture, and other innova tions, he endeavored to improve the economic condition of the country and to civilize the sur rounding tribes. But the progressive measures of the Khedive were accompanied by a reckless extravagance which involved the country to the limit of its resources and made it dependent upon the great financial powers. In 1879 the govern ments of France and England. in view of the wretched economic condition of Egypt and the large intere$ts of their own citizens in the admin istration. determined to interfere in behalf of good government, and united in demanding of the Porte that the Khedive should commit the portfolios of finance and public works to English and French ministers. The Khedive resented, any interference of the Western powers with Egyp tian affairs. The Sultan then offered to depose Is mail Pasha, and to appoint Halim Pasha. Ismail's uncle, as his successor; but the powers advised the Khedive to abdicate, promising to support his son, Tewfik. The Sultan acquiesced in the course recommended, and on June 26, 1S79, he signed the finnan deposing the Khedive in favor of his son, Prince Mohammed Tewfik. Ismail at once complied with the demand, and his son was proclaimed Khedive, as Tewfik 1. Ismail re ceived an annual allowance of £50,000 and left Egypt for Naples. In 1SSS he took up his resi dence in Constantinople, where he died March 2, 1895. See EGYPT.