JACO'BI, Ger. pron. ya-k5'be, ABRAHAM ( 1830 —1. An eminent German-American physician. born at Hartum, Westphalia, Germany. He stud ied at the universities of Grcifswald. Giittingen, and Bonn, obtaining his degree in medicine from the last-named institution. Having been an active participant in the struggle for free Ger many in 1848 and thereafter, Jacobi was prose cuted for treason and was kept in Prussian pris ons from 1851 to 1853. In the latter year, after spending a few months in Manchester, England, he came to America, and established himself in New York City. In 1857 he took an active part in founding the German dispensary. In 1860 he was chosen to fill the first chair of diseases of children instituted in this country. that of the New York Medical College. In 1865 he was elected to fill a similar chair in the medical de partment of the University of the City of New York. In 1868 he took part in founding the German Hospital of New York. His position at New York University he occupied till 1870, when he was chosen clinical professor of the diseases of children in the College of Physicians and Sur geons, New York City (medical department of Columbia University). The latter position he re tained until his resignation in 1902, when he was made professor emeritus. He was the first to establish. in New York City, systematic and spe cial clinics for the diseases of children, and very largely to him is due the recognition of pediatrics as a distinct branch of medicine. In 1895 he was urged to leave New York and become pro fessor of pediatrics in the University of Berlin, but he declined the honor. He was for many years consulting physician to the New York City Department of Health. to the J. Hood Wright Memorial Hospital, and to the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital, and visiting physician to the Nursery and Child's Hospital. He served as physician to the Mount Sinai Hospital from 1860, to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum from 1868, to Bellevue Hospital from 1873, and to Roose velt Hospital from 1898.
Dr. Jacobi's. writings are very numerous. A great number of his papers, principally on dis eases of women and children, were published in medical and other periodicals in this country and in Germany.
Among his book-form publications are: Cogita tiones de Vita Henna Naturalium (1851) ; Denti tion and Its Derangements (1862); Infant Diet (1873; 3d ed. 1875) ; A Treatise on Diphtheria (1880) ; The Intestinal Diseases of Infancy and Childhood (1837); Therapeutics of Infancy and Childhood (1895; 2d ed. 1897). His contribu tions to Noeggerath and Jacobi's Midwifery and the Diseases of Women and Children (1859), and his "Hygiene und Pflege der Kinder," in Ger hardt's Handbuch der Iiinderkrankheiten are most noteworthy. In 1893 he published two
volumes of miscellaneous essays and addresses on a variety of subjects, mostly medical, under the title Aufsiitze, Vortriige und Reden (1893). In 1373 he was married to Miss Mary C. Putnam, of New York, herself a noted physician, author, and teacher. See JACOBI, MARY PUTNAM.
jACOBI, FRIEDR/CII HEINRICH (1743-1819). A German philosopher. He was born at Diissel dorf, January 25, 1743, and •was educated at Frankfort and Geneva with a view to preparing himself for a mercantile career, which he began in 1762. In 1772 he was appointed councilor of finance for the duchies of Berg and Jiilich, and having married a woman of wealth was enabled to devote himself to lit erary pursuits. In 1794 he moved to Holstein, and in 1SO4 to Munich, where he had been appointed a member of the newly instituted Academy of Sciences, of which he became presi dent in 1807. Ile died on March 10, 1819. His writings consist partly of romances and partly of philosophical treatises. The principal are Tholdemar (2 vols.. 1779) and Eduard Briefsammlung (1781), both philosophical ro mances which attracted much attention in their day. hut have now no claim to special recognition, while his philosophical work has still consider able interest. Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza in Briefen an Mendelssohn (Breslau, 1785) is a polemic against logical methods of speculation in the search after the higher class of truths: and David Hume fiber den Glauben, oder Ideal ism us and Realism us ( Breslau. 1787) continues the polemic and makes an attempt to demon strate that the mind or nature of man possesses another faeulty—viz. faith.or intuition—by which the higher truths are as firmly grasped and in the same way as the material world is grasped by it, since sense is incompetent to witness to the independent reality of that world. His col lected works appeared at Leipzig ((i vols.. 1812 24). Consult: Kuhn, Jacobi and die Philosophie seiner Zcit (Mainz. 1834) ; Fricker, Die Phi losophic des Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (Augs burg, 1854) ; Zirngiebl, •'. II. Jaeobis Leben, Dichtungen and Denkcn (Vienna, 1867) ; Harms, Ueber die Lehre von H. Jacobi (Berlin, 1876) Holtzmann. ('giber Eduard A Theills Brief sammlung (.1ena, 1878) ; LiWy-Bruill, "Jacobi et le Spinosisme." in Berne Philosophique 'a ris, 1894) ; id., Le philosophic de Jacobi (ib., 1894).