KABUL, or CABUL. The capital of Afghanistan and of the province of the same name, in latitude 34° 30' X., and longitude 69° 16' E., near the point where the Kabul River. here crossed by three bridges, ceases to be fordable (Map: Afghanistan, L 4). Elevated about 6400 feet, and overtopped within a short distance to the north by pinnacles of the Hindu Kush, about 14,000 feet higher than itself, Kabul has severe winters. and temperate summers ranging from 75 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. On the southeast, crowning a hill 150 feet high, the Balahissar, a dismantled citadel, formerly the residence of the Ameer, dominates the city. The city is divided into four parts by the principal bazaar, the streets of which converge to a central square. The streets are badly paved, and the houses, which are as a rule only two or three stories high. are built of sun-dried bricks and wood, and have flat roofs; but the erection of new buildings, improvements in roads, etc., in recent years exhibit a decided advance toward modern civilization. On the outskirts of the city are extensive machine-shops, including a plant for electric light, and a rifle and cartridge factory. This arsenal is connected by rail with a marble quarry, about 10 miles distant. The water supply of the city is abundant and generally good. A considerable domestic trade is carried on, and European goods are largely imported. Kabul is the centre of a prolific fruit-growing district, especially noted for its melons and grapes. The inhabitants are Mohammedans of the Sunnite sect. They are not very dark in color, are strong, well built, and have a Jewish cast of countenance. The language of the com
mon people is the Pushtu dialect, but the higher classes speak the Persian language. The city is regarded as a very important strategic point. In the days of the Sultan Baber, Kabul was the capital of the Mogul Empire. The tombs of this Sultan, near the outer edge of the city, are among its most important momunents. Kabul has witnessed some of the most momentous events in Anglo-indian history. In 1839 it was taken by the British; in 1841 it was lost, owing to an outbreak which led to the massacre at the beginning of 1842 of about 4000 soldiers and 12. 000 followers; and finally, after being recovered by General Pollock in the same year, it was abandoned, its bazaars and public buildings hay ing previously been burned to the ground. From 1866 to 1868 Kabul was the principal scene of action in the civil war between the rival sons of Dost Mohammed, one of whom, Afzul, occupied the city for a time and proclaimed himself `Ameer of Kabul.' The rightful Ameer, Shere Ali. finally regained possession of the city in 186S, and it became again the capital of Afghan istan. In 1879 it witnessed the massacre of Major Cavagnari, the British resident, and his staff. This resulted in Lord Roberts's campaign, the victory of Charasaili, and the British occupa tion of Kabul for a year. Estimated population, 70.000. Consult Burnes, Cabool (Philadelphia, 1843).