KAL'IVIUCKS, or CALMUCKS (Tatar Kha limak, renegade). A western branch of the Mon gol race, inhabiting chiefly the eastern part of Tibet around Koko-nor and East Turkestan. the western part of the Russian Government of Astra khan, and the Province of the Don Cossacks. Their total number is estimated at 600.000, of whom above two-thirds are found in the Chinese Empire. They are generally divided into four tribes: the Khoshots, found chiefly around Koko nor and in the Kalmuck Steppe along the right Lank of the Volga, in the Government of Astra khan: the Dzungars, once inhabitinp. Sungaria (named after them), which they left after the conquest of that province by China in the eigh teenth century; the Derbets. found chiefly in the Kalmuck Steppe and the Province of the Don Cossacks: and the Torgots, formerly the chief Kalmuck tribe in Russia, of which. however. only a small portion has remained. the majority hav ing returned to Chinese territory in 1771. In his pure state the Kalmuck is short of stature hut stocky, with a large head covered with straight black hair, a flat round face with narrow, slanting eyes. high cheek-bones, and a flat nose with round nostrils. The complexion is swarthy, and the chin is covered only with a scanty growth. In height the Kalmucks average 1.650 in., and their ce phalic index, or ratio of head-width to head length, is S6.7. The Kalmucks of Russia are, with a few exceptions, Buddhists and nomadic, in spite of the numerous attempts on the part of the Rus sian Government to convert them into agricul turists. They live in tents (kibitkas), which are
grouped into aymaks and uluses, the former being governed by elected and the latter by hereditary chiefs. Prior to the reforms of 1892 the lower classes were tributary to the hereditary chiefs, but in that year all class privileges were abolished, and the Kalmucks were placed directly under the rule of the Russian Government, whose authority, however. is manifested only in the exaction of an annual tax of six rubles per kibitka. The Kalmucks of the Province of the Don Cossacks are gradually being assimilated and are subject to the same military obligations as the Cossacks. The Khoshots first made their appearance in European Russia in the seven teenth century. and were joined in the following century by the Torgots after their expulsion from Sungaria. In 1771 the Kalmucks living east of the Volga (mostly Torgots). partly provoked by the oppressive treatment of the Russian Govern ment and partly in the hope of reconquering Sungaria, started eastward to the number of 169,000 and reached Sungaria after eight months of indescribable hardships, resulting in the loss of over one-half of their number. Finding Sungaria still occupied by Chinese troops, they surrendered to the Chinese Government and were established in East Turkestan.