LEGAL EDUCATION. ON THE CONTINENT OF' Ernoef; BEFouE MSS. In the time of the Ro man Republic it was customary for a prospective lawyer to begin at the age of sixteen to listen systematically to the advice given to clients by some learned juriseonsult, and the student also had to familiarize himself with the Twelve Tables. It was thus that Cicero learned law under the two Sea'volas. In the time of Augustus the study of tin' Twelve Tables was superseded by the study of the Praetorian Edict. About the same time certain jurisconsults began to devote themselves principally to giving instruction. Among the earliest and most famous of these teachers were Labco and Sal inus. to-day best remembered for their connection with the fwo sects of lawyers, the Proeulians and the Sabinia 11s. From about the beginning of the third century there were systematic law schools, especially at Rome and at Constantinople. The course in the law schools covered four years, and students were sup posed to complete it at the age of twenty. Be
fore 533 the texts studied were the Institutes of Gains, the same author's treatises on married women's property, guardianship, wills, and legacies, the Pmetorian Edict. Papinian, Paulus, and the Constitutions. By a Constitution of 533 the course of study was rearranged. and the old texts gave place to .Tustinian's institutes, Digest, and Code. The framing of the Corpus Juris Cirilis, indeed, was partly guided by the needs of students and was largely executed by the pro fessors of Constantinople and Berytus.
In the East the study of the Corpus Juris Cirilis was superseded by Greek paraphrase, and then by new treatises. In Italy. however, the study of the Corpus Juris Cirilis was never wholly abandoned. it is not known to what ex tent there was systematic study of law in the Dark Ages, but in the eleventh century Pavia and Ravenna were centres of law teaching, the for mer being prekninent in Lombard law and the latter in Roman law.