LEGATE (Lat. legates, ambassador, deputy, lieutenant, governor, from lcgare, to send on a commission, bequeath). A title most commonly applied to the diplomatic and other represen tatives of the Pope outside of Rome. Legates are of three kinds: (1) Legati a latere (from the side) ; (2) commissioners or nuncios, legati nuntii apostolic-, with a minor class of internuntii; (3) legates by virtue of their office, legati nati. The dignity of a legate a latere has been confined to cardinals since the decree of In nocent IV. (1243-54) on the subject. Legates a latere are either ordinary or extraordinary the first commonly governed provinces within the Papal States; the second are commissioned to visit foreign courts for special purposes. such as a negotiation for a peace or arrangements for a general council. The legati missi or nuncios correspond to the ambassadors or ministers maintained by secular States at foreign capitals. The dignity and jurisdiction of a legatus natus is permanently attached to a metropolitan see by Papal concession: the Archbishop of Canterbury held this position up to the Reformation, and Cardinal Richelieu attempted to secure it for himself. Legates formerly exercised an imme
diate jurisdiction as representing the Holy See: hence frequent. conflicts with local episcopal au thority arose. To quiet these conflicts. the Coun cil of Trent (Sess. xxiv. cap. 20) decreed that legates were not to presume on the strength of any faculties whatsoever to impede the bishops in matrimonial causes or in those of crintinons clerks. nor to take proceedings unless recourse had been had to the bishop and he had neglected to act. An authority somewhat similar to the ancient legatine jurisdiction was granted by Pope Leo XIII. to a permanent apostolic delegate for the States and to one for Canada ; and similar officials have been sent also to the Philippines and to Cuba to adjudicate the ques tions growing out of the Spanish-American War of lS9S.