LEMBERG, lem'bem (Polish Lwow). The capital of the Crownland of Galicia, Austria, situated on the small stream of l'eltew in a deep valley in a mountainous region. 212 miles by rail east-southeast of Cracow (Map: Austria. J 2), It is the third city in size of Cisleithau Aus tria. It. is composed of the small old town. and of the four suburbs which contain mast of the prominent buildings. The ramparts have been re placed by promenades, but the city has latterly been equipped with a citadel. Lemberg is very rich in ecclesiastical edifices. The chief among them are the Roman Catholic cathedral, built in late-Gothic style in 1351)-1479 and adorned with frescoes; the Dominican church, modeled after Saint Peter's at Rome, and containing a monu ment to the Countess of Dunin-Borkowska by Thorwaldsen; the Armenian cathedral in the Ar menian-Byzantine style: the United (Ireck cathe dral in the basilica style: and the new synagogue. Lemberg has also eight monasteries and convents. The Rathaus. built in 1828-37. is surmounted by a tower 260 feet high and con tains an industrial museum. Other prominent secular buildings are the hall of the Landtag, the Polytechnic Institute. the archiepiseopal palace. and the hospital. Prominent among the educa tional institutions of Lemberg is the university, founded by the Emperor Joseph II. The most noteworthy of the other educational institutions are the royal technical high school (one of the six in Austria) with an attendance of 700, five gym nasia, two theological seminaries, a school of agriculture and forestry. a normal training schocl. and several special schools. The Ossolinski Vi tional Institute contains collections polish historical and literary antiquities. portraits. and
coins. The municipal has art and in dustrial collections, and the Dzieduszycki Mu scum is important to the student of ancient Galicia. In the Skarbek Theatre Polish-ltalian operas are sung and Polish dramas performed.
Lemberg is the seat of the chief economic or ganization, of the crownland, and of archbishops of the Roman Catholie, United Greek, and United Armenian churches. It has large banks and com mercial institutions. The transportation facili ties include an electric railway. Lemberg manu factures farm machinery, boilers, various other iron products, musical instruments, brick, spirits, flour, etc. The trade, very extensive during the .Middle Ages, was almost entirely destroyed by the fall of Poland. Within re cent years the transit trade has somewhat recovered. The chief articles of commerce are agricultural products and sonic iron manufac tures. The important fair of 'the three Kings' is held every January. Population, in 1890, 127, 943; in 1900, 159,618. The larger part of the inhabitants are Poles and Roman Catholics, but there is also a considerable number of Jews, Germans, and Ruthenians. The foundation of Lemberg is usually attributed to the Ruthenian Prince Da niel. who built it for his son Leo. in whose honor it was named. Captured by Casimir the Great in I:340, it received Magdeburg rights, and greatly increased in importance under the Polish rule. It received many German colonists, and for two centuries the German language was used in its public records. It passed to Austria at the first partition of Poland in 1772.