LIDNER, 16cVner, BENGT (1757-93). A Swed ish poet, born at Giiteborg. When he went to the University of Lund (1774) he became the head of a coterie of youthful poets. Already dissi pated, be had to leave the university at the end of a year, and took his degree at Rostock. At Stockholm he published a collection of fables that attracted the attention of the King. III., who sent him to Paris as .secretary of the .Amba-sador, Creutz. While there he wrote hi, tragedy. Erik His most remarkable poems are Grefrinnan Spostaras Dod and Bret 1783. and Medea. a tragedy. His complete work, were pith lished in 1788. and again, with a biography by Sander, in 1859.
LIDO, IO'dis. A range of low islands separat ing the lagune of Venice from the Adriatic. At the northern end lies the port of Venice, also ealled Lido.
LIE, le, JONAS EDEMIL (1833-1. A Norwegian novelist. born at Eker. June 11, 1833. He studied at Christiania, where he ciated with Bjornson and Ibsen. at first practiced law, and then gave himself to literature. nalism, and teaching. His first novel, The ary (1870: trans. 1S94), was warmly received and the Norwegian Government accorded him a traveling stipend. He went to the far North and to Rome, where he wrote Tales and Sketches from Norway (1872). His knowledge of the sea and coast life gave a peculiar flavor to The Bark `Future' (1873. trans. 1S79). and The Pilot and (1874), the latter his most widely known novel. Be received from the Government the Poet's Pension, and in the main lived abroad in German cities and in Paris, producing some score of good novels and two mediocre comedies. In the novels, The Slave far Life (1883) marks a turning-point. His earlier work—Thomas Ross (1878), Adam Schrader (15791. both urban: Rutland ( 1 SS1 . Press On (1SS°_1, both sea-tales—is poetic and sympathetic. From 1S83 onwa rd—The Fa m a t Oilje (18931, A Maelstrom ( ISS4), Eight Stories (ISS5), The Daughters of the Commodore (ISSO), Married Life (18871, Evil Powers (1890). Troll I. and II. (1591-921.
Niobe( 1S93), Maisa dots( 19001—Lie falls under the domination of the French Naturalistic School. In seeking to be more true to real life he fixes his eye, on its less pleasant aspects, hut sympathy and humor never desert him when he writes of the sea. Many of Lie's stories have been lated into English. German, and other languages.
Lie's return to Norway in 1s93 after twelve years' absence was celebrated as a national festival, LIE, Sornus (1842-99). A Norwegian math ematician, born at Nordfjord, near Bergen. He studied at Christiania and, on receiving a travel ing scholarship in 1809, Germany, Italy, and France. In the following year he began teaching at Christiania. Ile received his (Inetor's degree in 1871, presenting a remarkable thesis, "On a of Geometric From 1372 to 1886 he held the chair of mathe matics in the University of Christiania, and was then called to Leipzig to succeed Klein. In 1598 he was again called to the University of Christi ania, and died there in January of the following year. Lie's greatest work was in the theory of differential equations and in hi, discovery of c(al tinuous transformation group,. Ili, best known works include: Theorie der Transformationsgrup pen (188S-93 ; Vorlesungen iiber • rential aleichungen ,nit bekannten Trans format ionen, and also Leber eont Hick, GI-1,1, 10n (edited by Seheffers, 1591, 1s93). Fur a complete list of his works consult Engel, "Sophu 5 Lie," in Bibliothera Mat& matica. see. 3. vol. i. (Stockholm, 1890) : for biography, Engel, in the Jahresbericht der Drutschcn Mathe matiker-Vereinigung, vol. viii. (Berlin. 1900) Darboux, in the Comptes Rendus de des sciences, vol. exxviii. (Paris, 1899) ; Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (New York, 1899).