LODGE, Sir OLIVER JOSEPH (1851—). An English physicist. lie was born June 12, 1851, at Renkhull. Staffordshire. At the completion of his grammar school education he at first entered upon business life, hut by studying evenings he was able to matriculate and pursue courses at the University College, London, where he received the degree of B.Sc.. taking honors in physics. After further study in Prof. Carey Foster's laboratory, he received the degree of D.Sc. and became as sistant professor of physics at the University College. London. Upon the establishment of the University College at Liverpool, Lodge was appointed professor of physics (1881), and was connected with that institution until 1900. when he became principal of the University of Bir mingham. He was knighted in ]902. Pro fessor Lodge's researches have been mainly in electricity, and he has carefully investi gated many subjects connected with alternating currents. lightning discharges, and the physics of the ether. In the course of his experi ments with lightning conductors he was able to discover oscillations and waves in conductors, and as lie was seeking to demonstrate Maxwell's theoretical observations, it is more than prob able that. he would have observed these waves
in air if he had not been anticipated by Hertz (q.v.). However, Ile discovered that these wares would cause filings of metals to cohere or alter their arrangement and electrical resistance, and was thus able to construct the coherer, which plays so important a part in wireless telegraphy (q.v.). This invention was also made inde pendently by Edouard Branly, of Paris, hut Lodge's work in this field was followed by other discoveries which brought about substantial ad vances in wireless telegraphy. His researches on lightning led to the revision of many ideas which have long been held on this subject. and his work on Lightning Conductors and Lightning Guards is considered one of the most valuable works in this department. He has written many papers on physics and electricity, and is the author of the following books: Elementary Mechanics (1877) ; Modern Views of Electricity (1SS9) ; Lightning Conductors and Guards (1892); Pioneers of Science (1893) ; and The Work of Hertz and His Successors.